Above is a Flash movie about hypercalciuria. You need the Flash player, which is a free download. If you have a small screen, you will need a screen resolution of 96 dpi, or the window will not fit. Click on "pathophysiology" on the main menu to begin. When you finish that section, return to the menu page and click on "osteopenia". Be sure to try all the nephron segments to see the movies!
Here is a differential diagnosis of hypercalciuria and outline of flash presentation:
I. Pathophysiology Filtered load Increased calcium load bone resorption intestinal absorption dietary intake, vitamin D excess, phosphate wasting review renal phosphate transport and rickets Increased glomerular filtration amino acids, caffeine, pregnancy Proximal tubular reabsorption sodium excess acidosis mannitol Dent's disease Reabsorption from the loop loop diuretics activating mutations of CaSR mutations in claudin-16 Distal tubular reabsorption hypoparathyroidism acidosis low vitamin D pseudohypoaldosteronism II [thiazide, amiloride, Gitelman's disease cause hypocalciuria] Collecting duct CaSR inhibits ADH II. Hypercalciuria and relationship to bone density III. Thiazides and bone disease
If you want to use the flash movies for teaching, please email me for downloading directions.