Estrogen references

Women's Health Initiative Papers

Anderson GL. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Jama 2004;291:1701-12.

Chlebowski RT. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. Jama 2003;289:3243-53.

Rossouw JE. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Jama 2002;288:321-33.

Manson JE. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2003;349:523-34.

Jackson RD. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen on risk of fractures and BMD in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: results from the women's health initiative randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res 2006;21(6):817-28.

Stefanick ML. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. Jama 2006;295(14):1647-57.

Manson JE. Estrogen therapy and coronary-artery calcification. N Engl J Med 2007;356(25):2591-602.

Estrogen compared to alendronate in clinical trials

Wimalawansa SJ. A four-year randomized controlled trial of hormone replacement and bisphosphonate, alone or in combination, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Med 1998;104(3):219-26.

Ravn P. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss: four-year results from the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:935-42.

Bone HG. Alendronate and estrogen effects in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Alendronate/Estrogen Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(2):720-6.

Greenspan SL. Combination therapy with hormone replacement and alendronate for prevention of bone loss in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2003;289(19):2525-33.

Evio S. Effects of alendronate and hormone replacement therapy, alone and in combination, on bone mass and markers of bone turnover in elderly women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89(2):626-31.

Other clinical estrogen studies

Beral V. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003;362:419-27.

Miller J. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement and risk for venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:680-90.

Perez Gutthann S. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study. Bmj 1997;314:796-800.

Harris ST. Effect of combined risedronate and hormone replacement therapies on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86(5):1890-7.

Phillips LS. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: Critical reappraisal and a unified hypothesis. Fertil Steril 2005;83(3):558-66.

Prestwood KM. Ultralow-dose micronized 17beta-estradiol and bone density and bone metabolism in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2003;290:1042-8.

Varas-Lorenzo C. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of hospitalization for venous thromboembolism: a population-based study in southern Europe. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:387-90.

Wells G. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. V. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy in treating and preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Endocr Rev 2002;23(4):529-39.

Prior JC. Premenopausal ovariectomy-related bone loss: a randomized, double-blind, one-year trial of conjugated estrogen or medroxyprogesterone acetate. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12(11):1851-63.

Hergenroeder AC. Bone mineral changes in young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea treated with oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, or placebo over 12 months. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176(5):1017-25.

Adachi JD. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone density of women taking oestrogen replacement therapy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104(1):64-70.

PEPE Writing Group. Effects of hormone therapy on bone mineral density: results from the postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial. Jama 1996;276(17):1389-96.

Barrett-Connor E. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Study: primary outcomes in adherent women. Maturitas 1997;27(3):261-74.

Huang AJ. Endogenous estrogen levels and the effects of ultra-low-dose transdermal estradiol therapy on bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 2007;22(11):1791-7.

Nelson HD. Osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women using estrogen. Arch Intern Med 2002;162(20):2278-84.

Mechanism of action

Weitzmann MN. Estrogen deficiency and bone loss: an inflammatory tale. J Clin Invest 2006;116(5):1186-94.

Wehrli FW. In vivo magnetic resonance detects rapid remodeling changes in the topology of the trabecular bone network after menopause and the protective effect of estradiol. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23(5):730-40.

Syed FA. Effects of estrogen therapy on bone marrow adipocytes in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Osteoporos Int 2008.

Eghbali-Fatourechi G. Role of RANK ligand in mediating increased bone resorption in early postmenopausal women. J Clin Invest 2003;111(8):1221-30.

Riggs BL. Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocr Rev 2002;23(3):279-302.

Syed F. Mechanisms of sex steroid effects on bone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;328(3):688-96.

Poli V. Interleukin-6 deficient mice are protected from bone loss caused by estrogen depletion. Embo J 1994;13(5):1189-96.

Wang Q. Differential effects of sex hormones on peri- and endocortical bone surfaces in pubertal girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91(1):277-82.

Updated 5/25/08

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