Osteoporosis references

General osteoporosis

Cauley, J. A.(1995). Estrogen replacement therapy and fractures in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 122(1): 9-16.

Dawson Hughes, B.(1997). Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337(10): 670-6.

De Laet, C. E.(1997). Bone density and risk of hip fracture in men and women: cross sectional analysis. BMJ 315(7102): 221-5.

Eastell, R. (1998) Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine; 338: 736.

Kanis, J. A.(1994). The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9(8): 1137-41.

Rosen, C. J.(2003). Restoring aging bones. Sci Am 288: 70-7.


Adebajo, A. O.(1991). Fractures of the hip and distal forearm in West Africa and the United Kingdom. Age Ageing 20: 435-8.

Aspray, T. J.(1996). Low bone mineral content is common but osteoporotic fractures are rare in elderly rural Gambian women. J Bone Miner Res 11: 1019-25.

Black DM. Comparison of methods for defining prevalent vertebral deformities: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:890-902.

Black, D. M.(1995). Comparison of methods for defining prevalent vertebral deformities: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 10: 890-902.

Burger, H.(1997). Vertebral deformities and functional impairment in men and women. J Bone Miner Res 12: 152-7.

Davies KM. Prevalence and severity of vertebral fracture: the Saunders County Bone Quality Study. Osteoporos Int 1996;6(2):160-5.

Eastell, R.(1991). Classification of vertebral fractures. J Bone Miner Res 6: 207-15.

EPOS. Incidence of vertebral fracture in europe: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS). J Bone Miner Res 2002;17(4):716-24.

Genant, H. K.(1996). Comparison of semiquantitative visual and quantitative morphometric assessment of prevalent and incident vertebral fractures in osteoporosis The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 11: 984-96.

Grados F. Comparison of four morphometric definitions and a semiquantitative consensus reading for assessing prevalent vertebral fractures. Osteoporos Int 2001;12(9):716-22.

Grados F. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in French women older than 75 years from the EPIDOS study. Bone 2004;34(2):362-7.

Hasserius R. Vertebral deformation in urban Swedish men and women: prevalence based on 797 subjects. Acta Orthop Scand 2001;72(3):273-8.

Johansson C. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in 85-year-olds. Radiographic examination of 462 subjects. Acta Orthop Scand 1993;64(1):25-7.

Kanis(2002). International variations in hip fracture probabilities: implications for risk assessment. J Bone Miner Res 17: 1237-44.

Lau EM. Normal ranges for vertebral height ratios and prevalence of vertebral fracture in Hong Kong Chinese: a comparison with American Caucasians. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11(9):1364-8.

Looker, A. C.(1998). Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults. Osteoporos Int 8: 468-89.

Melton LJ. Prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformities. Osteoporos Int 1993;3:113-9.

Melton, L. J.(1995). How many women have osteoporosis now? J Bone Miner Res 10: 175-7.

Melton, L. J.(1999). Fracture incidence in Olmsted County, Minnesota: comparison of urban with rural rates and changes in urban rates over time. Osteoporos Int 9: 29-37.

Melton, L. J.(1993). Hip fractures: a worldwide problem today and tomorrow. Bone 14 Suppl 1: S1-8.

Nevitt MC. Risk factors for a first-incident radiographic vertebral fracture in women . . . the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 2005;20(1):131-40.

O'Neill, T. W.(1996). The prevalence of vertebral deformity in european men and women: the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 11: 1010-8.

Pollitzer, W. S.(1989). Ethnic and genetic differences in bone mass: a review with a hereditary vs environmental perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 50: 1244-59.

Spector, T. D.(1993). Prevalence of vertebral fracture in women and the relationship with bone density and symptoms: the Chingford Study. J Bone Miner Res 8: 817-22.

Van der Klift M. The incidence of vertebral fractures in men and women: the Rotterdam Study. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17(6):1051-6.

Defining vertebral fractures

Fractures predict fractures

Osteoporosis is ignored

Freedman KB. Treatment of osteoporosis: are physicians missing an opportunity? J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82-A(8):1063-70.

Gehlbach SH. Recognition of vertebral fracture in a clinical setting. Osteoporos Int 2000;11(7):577-82.

Andrade SE. Low frequency of treatment of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women following a fracture. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(17):2052-7.

Neuner JM. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with vertebral compression fractures. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51(4):483-91.

Dreinhofer KE. Orthopaedic surgeons and fragility fractures. A survey by the Bone and Joint Decade and the International Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2004;86(7):958-61.

Eisman J. Osteoporosis prevalence and levels of treatment in primary care: the Australian BoneCare Study. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19(12):1969-75.

Kim N. Underreporting of vertebral fractures on routine chest radiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;182(2):297-300.

Kroth PJ. Undertreatment of osteoporosis in women, based on detection of vertebral compression fractures on chest radiography. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2004;2(2):112-8.

Papaioannou A. The osteoporosis care gap in Canada. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2004;5(1):11.

Gardner MJ. Interventions to improve osteoporosis treatment following hip fracture. A prospective, randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005;87(1):3-7.

Majumdar SR. Incidental vertebral fractures discovered with chest radiography in the emergency department: prevalence, recognition, and osteoporosis management in a cohort of elderly patients. Arch Intern Med 2005;165(8):905-9.

Solomon DH. Medication use patterns for osteoporosis: an assessment of guidelines, treatment rates, and quality improvement interventions. Mayo Clin Proc 2005;80(2):194-202.

Risk factors

Bauer, D. C.(1993). Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 118(9): 657-65.

Cummings, S. R.(1995). Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332(12): 767-73.

Greenspan, S. L.(1994). Fall severity and bone mineral density as risk factors for hip fracture in ambulatory elderly. JAMA 271(2): 128-33.

BMD and fracture prediction


Fulton, J. P.(1999). New guidelines for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation. Med Health R I 82: 110-1.

Hodgson, S. F.(2001). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists 2001 Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Prevention and Management of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Endocr Pract 7: 293-312.

Nelson, H. D.(2002). Screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 137: 529-41.

Tannenbaum, C.(2002). Yield of Laboratory Testing to Identify Secondary Contributors to Osteoporosis in Otherwise Healthy Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87: 4431-4437.

-- Updated 6/15/07