Georgia O'Keeffe, Deer Skull with Pedernal.

COMPARATIVE VERT. ANATOMY - Biology 453

LECTURE NOTES

Autumn 2014

Notes will be added as the quarter proceeds.

Biol. 453 Home Page
Biol. 453 Lab Notes
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Biol. 453 Exam Page

My "Basic" Cladogram

Exam 1
1 What is a vertebrate? & Ex. 1
4 What are the differences amongst fish skins? & Ex. 4
2 What does development tell us about evolution in vertebrates? & Ex. 2
5 Compare the skin of amphibians & "reptiles". & Ex. 5
3 How can cladistic analyses help us understand vertebrate evolution? & Ex. 3
6 Compare the skin of birds & mammals. & Ex. 6
Chordate Traits Cladegram
 
Exam 2
7 What are the differences amongst fish skulls? & Ex. 7
12 What are the properties of skeletal muscle? & Ex. 12 & Gear Ratios
8 How did skulls change in the transition to land? & Ex. 8
13 How do axial muscles function in fishes & marine tetrapods? & Ex. 13
9 How are mammal skulls unique? & Ex. 9
14 What changes occurred during evolution of cranial muscles? & Ex. 14
10 What are the major changes in the axial skeleton? & Ex. 10
15 What adaptations were needed for terrestrial locomotion? & Ex. 15
11 How did fins evolve? How did limbs evolve? & Ex. 11
16 Compare the flight of birds & bats. & Ex. 16
17 How was the oral cavity modified in vertebrate evolution? & Ex. 17
22 Compare the hearts & aortic arches of amniotes. & Ex. 22
18 What are the major changes in the GI tract in vert. evolution? & Ex. 18
23 How was the kidney modified during vertebrate evolution? & Ex. 23
19 Why are gills so efficient for respiration? & Ex. 19
24 How do male reproductive systems differ? & Ex. 24
20 What changes led to the origin & modification of lungs? & Ex. 20
25 How do female reproductive systems differ? & Ex. 25
21 Compare the hearts & aortic arches of fishes. & Ex. 21
26 How do eggs differ? Which vertebrates have placentae? & Ex. 26