(For CC, c.2. Mostly drawn from John Taylor, Cognitive Grammar)
1. What do the following words profile? What is the base against which profiling takes place? What are the broader domains against which the words are understood? Assume that the words are nouns. For some of the words, you might try to represent the concepts diagrammatically, in the manner of Figure 2.1, drawing the profiles in bold. lid drawer gap portrait hole patch spot edge corner tear (as in a torn piece of cloth) crack flash (of light) arc (of a circle) orphan 2. It could be argued that on land and on the ground profile exactly the same kind of location. The expressions differ, however, in how the location is conceptualized (Fillmore 1979). Explain what the difference is. (It may be useful to consider what the expressions might contrast with. If something is not `on the ground', where might it be? If it is not `on land', where might it be?) 3. Domain-based knowledge often contributes to the coherence of an utterance. Compare: (i) I left the restaurant without paying the bill. (ii) ? I left the cinema without paying the bill. ` (i) is easily interpreted, since the mention of a restaurant activates the scenario associated with restaurants, one component of which is that the customer, having eaten, is presented with the bill and is expected to pay it. Notice that the definite noun phrase the bill refers specifically to the bill that features in the scenario. (ii) is odd because paying a bill plays no role in the cinema scenario. Consider the following pairs of sentences. You will probably find that those in (iii) are relatively easy to make sense of, those in (iv) less so. Explain the difference in terms of the scenarios that are necessary for understanding the sentence pairs, and the ease with which these scenarios are activated by specific words or phrases. (iii) I'm sorry I'm late. I couldn't find my car keys. I'm afraid the beer is warm. There was a power failure. (iv) I'm sorry I'm late. There was a power failure. I'm afraid the beer is warm. I couldn't find my car keys. 4.Is the caption for Figure 2.1 correct? 5. Look up the framenet entries of cry and alleviatev. Do the different frames associated with the noun and verb forms of cry correspond to anything in world of Crying Baby 1.2? Discuss how these verbs and frames figure in the coherence of Crying Baby 1.2.