Mid-term Examination Study Guide
Winter Quarter 2012

The following points are taken from the textbooks, readings and course lectures.  They are listed to help you focus your reading and studying on the essential concepts and information

Part I.  Vectorborne Diseases:

A. History:  Plagues and their Impacts

1. Bubonic plague
2. Typhus - 340 BC - Plague of Athens
3. Malaria - Africa, Mediterranean basin; ancient Rome
4. Sleeping sickness - curse of European explorers in Africa

B. Cuasative Factors

1. Man's evolution with vectors
2. Vectors' evolution with disease agents
3. Urbanization made humans easier targets
4. Expanding trade routes brought peoples and diseases together which had never been together before
5. War: constant mixer of peoples and diseases
6. Lack of scientific thought, cause-to-effect
7. Lack of sanitation

C. Current Conditions & Trends

1. End of persistent insecticide use in USA
2. Resurgence of "conquered" diseases, e.g., malaria, dengue, yellow fever in tropical nations
3. Underfunding of vector control programs due to complacency
4. Increasing crowding of humans, esp in 3rd world countries
5. Increasing amount of travel worldwide
6. Increasing development (logging, etc. of remote areas)
7. Rising American interest in sylvatic plague, emerging diseases, e.g., Ebola, etc. through CDC

Part II.  Rodent Vectors:

A. Rats

1. Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats
2. Roof Rats (Rattus rattus)
a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats
B. Mice
1. House Mouse (mus musculus)
a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats
2. Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)
a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats

Part III.  Control of Rodents:

A. Assessment:

1. Complaints
2. Surveys
3. Monitoring
a. Surveys
b. Trapping
c. Complaints

B. Policy Development:  Favor an Integrated Pest Management strategy, i.e., one which incorporates the balanced use of:

1. Physical control methods
a. Sanitation: cut off food supply
b. Habitat modification:  alteration of the environment: remove food and harborage
c. Direct intervention: trapping/killing
2. Biological control methods
3. Chemical control methods
4. Social methods
a. Education to raise awareness and reduce tolerance of pest
b. Legislation; write regulations

C. Assurance:  Control

1. Prevention of Vectorborne Disease
a. Reservoir factors
b. Vector factors:
c. Host factors
d. Pesticide use & controversies
2. Types and Use of Pesticides
a. By function: (what they kill)
b. By mode of action:  (how they kill)
c. By chemistry:  (Which classes are used in rodent control?)
d. Human Health Effects of Pesticides
3. Application
a. Baits: depending on target, chemical
b. Sprays: crack & crevice, spot, broad area
c. Fogs: enclosed spaces
d. Dusts: injected, blown in/on
e. Fumigation: safe areas only; rarely used; highly toxic to humans
4. Vector Control Programs
a. Many state programs have been severely cut or eliminated
b. Washington presently does not have much capacity to deal with vectorborne disease outbreaks, but this is likely to improve
c. Functions of a Vector Control Program — Prevention
d. Indicators of increase risk of human disease



Send mail to: ctreser@u.washington.edu
Last modified: 1/12/2012 @ 3:33 pm