Final Examination Study Guide
Winter Quarter 2010

The following points are taken from the textbooks, readings and course lectures.  They are listed to help you focus your reading and studying on the essential concepts and information

Part I.  Vectorborne Diseases:

A. Arthropodborne Disease

1. African Sleeping Sickness
2. Arthropodborne Encephalitis
3. Chagas Disease
4. Dengue & DHF
5. Erhlichiosis
6. Endemic Typhus
7. Epidemic Typhus
8. Lyme Disease
9. Malaria
10. Q Fever
11. Rabies
12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
13. Scrub Typhus
14. West Nile Virus
15. Yellow Fever

B. Causative Factors

1. Man's evolution with vectors
2. Vectors' evolution with disease agents
3. Urbanization made humans easier targets
4. Expanding trade routes brought peoples and diseases together which had never been together before
5. War: constant mixer of peoples and diseases
6. Lack of scientific thought, cause-to-effect
7. Lack of sanitation
C. Current Conditions & Trends
1. End of persistent insecticide use in USA
2. Resurgence of "conquered" diseases, e.g., malaria, dengue, yellow fever in tropical nations
3. Underfunding of vector control programs due to complacency
4. Increasing crowding of humans, esp in 3rd world countries
5. Increasing amount of travel worldwide
6. Increasing development (logging, etc. of remote areas)
7. Rising American interest in sylvatic plague, emerging diseases, e.g., Ebola, etc. through CDC

Part II.  Arthropods:

A. General

1. Biology
2. Habits
3. Habitats

B. Class: Arachnida

1. Acarina (Ticks & Mites)
a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats

C. Class: Insecta

1. Diptera (Flies & Mosquitoes

a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats

2. Anoplura (Lice)

a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats

3. Siphonaptera (Fleas)

a. Biology
b. Habits
c. Habitats

D. Other Bugs

1. Biology
2. Habits
3. Habitats

Part III.  Control of Arthropods:

A. Assessment:

1. Complaints
2. Surveys
a. Flies
b. Mosquitoes
o Dipping
o Bite counts
c. Ticks
o Count after walking through habitat  (brush, etc.)
d. Fleas
o Combing trapped rats/animals for ectoparasites
e. Other arthropods
3. Monitoring
a. Surveys
b. Trapping
o Baited traps (baits, odor, CO2)
o Light traps
c. Complaints
B. Policy Development:  Favor an Integrated Pest Management strategy, i.e., one which incorporates the balanced use of:
1. Physical control methods
a. Sanitation: cut off food supply
b. Habitat modification:  alteration of the environment: remove food and harborage
o Exclusion from buildings screening/sealing entry holes
o Elimination of food
o Protecting human food from depredation
o Eliminating junkpiles, standing water, old cars, etc.
o Drain swamps, ditches
c. Direct intervention: trapping/killing (e.g., fly swatter)
2. Biological control methods
a. Pheromone lures, e.g., gypsy moth
b. Sterile male release, e.g., screwfly
c. Encourage growth of predator species, e.g., wasp specific to American roach or tent caterpillar
3. Chemical control methods
a. Pesticides
b. Attractants/repellents
c. Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)
4. Social methods
a. Education to raise awareness and reduce tolerance of pest
b. Legislation; write regulations

C. Assurance:  Control

1. Prevention of Vectorborne Disease
a. Reservoir factors
o Size
o Location
o Proximity to people
o Economic impacts
o Vulnerability to possible control measures
o Competing values
b. Vector factors:
o Same as reservoir factors
o Pesticide use/effectiveness/impactsa
c. Host factors
o vulnerability to pest
- protective clothing
- window screens
- repellents
- behavior toward vector
o lifestyle
- urban vs rural
- recreation preferences
o awareness level; concern?
d. Pesticide use & controversies
o Competing values: kill mosquitoes vs saving songbirds; nuisance control vs swamps / wildlife values
o Human toxicity vs vector control
o Public pressure

2. Types and Use of Pesticides

a. By function: (what they kill)
1) Larvacides
2) Adulticides
b. By mode of action:  (how they kill)
1) Systemic poisons
2) Contact poisons
c. By chemistry:
1) Inorganics
2) Organochlorine compounds ("hard"[persistent] chemicals)
3) Organophosphate compounds
4) Carbamates
5) Botanicals & derivatives
o Pyrethrins
o Pyrethroids
o Rotenone
d. Biologicals
o Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
e. Human Health Effects of Pesticides
1) Acute toxicity (poisoning)
2) Chronic effects (long term, less noticeable)
3. Application
a. Baits: depending on target, chemical
o blocks
o liquids
o gels
b. Sprays: crack & crevice, spot, broad area
c. Fogs: enclosed spaces
d. Dusts: injected, blown in/on
e. Fumigation: safe areas only; rarely used; highly toxic to humans
4. Vector Control Programs
a. Many state programs have been severely cut or eliminated
1) Few reported cases compared to previous decades
2) Competing disease programs (e.g., HIV/AIDS)
3) Vector programs perceived as dealing only with nuisances ratehr than serious diseases.
b. Washington presently does not have much capacity to deal with vectorborne disease outbreaks, but this is likely to improve

c. Functions of a Vector Control Program -- Prevention

1) Public education to get cooperation & support
2) Surveillance of vectors and reservoirs
3) Early warnings and alerts
4) Assurance that control measures are conducted when necessary
d. Indicators of increase risk of human disease
1) Surveillance efforts to detect increased activity
2) Wild birds
3) Chickens (sentinel flocks)
4) Prairie dogs
5) Rabbits
6) Human cases

5.  Integrated Pest Management:

a. Purpose

b. Types of Control

1) Physical Control
2) Mechanical Control
3 Biological Control
4) Chemical Control

c. Using an IPM Approach



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Last modified: 3/02/2010 - 1:33 pm