Mating Strategies & reproductive behavior

Buss, D. M. (2002). Human mating strategies.

Physical attractiveness:  Gangestad, S. et al  (1994).  Facial attractiveness, developmental stability and fluctuating asymmetry.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 73-85.

Sperm competition:  Baker, R. R. & Bellis, M. A. (1993). Human sperm competition: ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation. Animal Behaviour, 46, 861-885.

Early Child-Bearing:  Geronimus, A. T.  (1997).  Teenage childbearing and personal responsibility : an alternative view. Political Science Quarterly, 112, 405-430.

Jealousy:  Daly, M., Wilson, M. & Weghorst, S. J.  (1982).  Male sexual jealousy.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 3, 11-27.

Geary, D. C. (1995). Sexual jealousy as a facultative trait: Evidence from the pattern of sex differences in adults from China and the United States, Ethology and Sociobiology, 16, 355-383.

DeSteno, D. A. & Salovey, P. (1996). Evolutionary origins of sex differences in jealousy? Questioning the “fitness” of the model. Psychological Science, 7, 367-372.

Buunk , B. P. et al. (1996), Sex differences in jealousy in evolutionary and cultural perspective: Tests from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States. Psychological Science, 7, 359-363.

DeSteno, D, Bartlett, M. Y., Braverman, J. & Salovey, P.  (2002).  Sex Differences in Jealousy: Evolutionary Mechanism or Artifact of Measurement?  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1103-1116.

Incest:  Haig, D. (1999). Asymmetric Relations: Internal Conflicts and the Horror of Incest, Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 83-98.

Bevec, I. & Silverman, I.  (2000).  Early separation and sibling incest:  A test of the revised Westermarck theory.  Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 151-161.

Lieberman, D., Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L.  (2003).  Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest.  Proceedings of the Royal Society, February 28th.

Concealed ovulation:  Benshoof, L. & Thornhill, R.  (1979).  Evolution of monogamy and concealed ovulation in humans.  Journal of Social Biology and Structure, 2, 95-106.

Strassman, B. I.  (1981).  Sexual selection, parental care and concealed ovulation in humans.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 2, 31-40.

Homosexuality:  R. C. Kirkpatrick et al.  (2000). The Evolution of human homosexual behavior.  Current Anthropology, 41, 385-413.

Bailey, J. M. et al (2000). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Sexual Orientation and Its Correlates in an Australian Twin Sample.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 524-536.

Zietsch, B. P. et al (2008). Genetic factors predisposing to homosexuality may increase mating success in heterosexuals. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 424-433.

Santtila, P. et al (2009). Testing Miller’s theory of alleles preventing androgenization as an evolutionary explanation for the genetic predisposition for male homosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 58-65.

Bogaert, A. F. (2006). Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men’s sexual orientation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 10771-10774.

Vasey, P. L. & VanderLaan, D.P. (2009). Avuncular tendencies in Samoan fa’afafine and the evolution of male androphilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, in press.

Iemmola, F. & Ciani, A. C. (2009). New evidence of genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men: female fecundity increase in the maternal line. Archives of Sexual Behavior, in press.

Paternal confidence:  Gaulin, S. J. C. & Schlegel, A.  (1980).  Paternity confidence and paternal investment:  a cross-cultural test of a sociobiological hypothesis.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 1, 301-309.



Pair-bonding:  Quinlan, R. J. & Quinlan, M. B. (2008). Human lactation, pair-bonds, and alloparents:  A cross-cultural analysis. Human Nature, 19, 87-102.

Child Abuse: Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1985). Child abuse and other risks of not living with both parents. Ethology & Sociobiology, 6, 197-210.

Menopause:  Hill & Hurtado  (1991).  The evolution of premature reproductive senescence and menopause in human females.  Human Nature, 2, 313-350.

Peccei, J. S. (1995). The origin and evolution of menopause: The altriciality-lifespan hypothesis, Evolution and Human Behavior, 16, 425-449.

Hawkes et al  (1998). Grandmothering, menopause and the evolution of human life histories.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 1336-1339.

Attachment: Chisholm, J. S.  (1998).  The evolutionary ecology of attachment organization.  Human Nature, 7, 1-38.


altrusim, Kin selection, reciprocity

Boehm, C. (1997). The natural selection of altruistic traits. Human Nature, 10, 205-252.

Mulder, M. B. (2007). Hamilton’s rule and kin selection: the Kipsigis case. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 299-312.

Gintis, H. et al.  (2003). Explaining altruistic behavior in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 153-172.

Quinlan, R. J. & Flinn, M. V. (2005). Kinship, sex, and fitness in a Caribbean community. Human Nature, 16, 32-57.



Bigelow, R. (1972). The evolution of cooperation, aggression and self-control. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 20, 1-57.

Campbell, D. T. (1975). On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. American Psychologist, 30, 1103–1126.

Durham, W. C. (1976). Resource competition and human aggression: Part I: A review of primitive war. Quarterly Review of Biology, 51, 385-415.

Chagnon, N. (1983). Yanomamo: The Fierce People. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 

Wilson, M. & Daly, M.  (1985).  Competitiveness, risk taking, and violence: the young male syndrome, Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 59-73.

Daly, M. & Wilson, M.  (1989).  Homicide and cultural evolution.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 10, 99-110.

Otterbein, K. F. (1997). The origins of war. Critical Review, 11, 251-277.

Flinn, M. V., Geary, D. C. & Ward, C. V. (2005). Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races: Why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 10-46.



Unconscious motivation:  Buller, D. J.  (1999).  DeFreuding Evolutionary Psychology: Adaptation and Human Motivation. In Where Biology Meets Psychology: Philosophical Essays (pp. 99-114), Ed. V. G. Hardcastle. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

Self deception: Lockard, J. L. & Paulhus, D. L.  (1988).  Self-deception:  An adaptive mechanism?  Prentice Hall:  NJ.

Trivers, R. (2000). The elements of a scientific theory of self-deception. New York Academy of Sciences, 114-131.

Cognitive modules:  Gigerenzer, G., & Hug, K. (1992).  Domain-specific reasoning: Social contracts, cheating and perspective change. Cognition, 43, 127-171.

Sperber, D. & Girotto, V.  (2002).  Use or misuse of the selection task? Rejoinder to Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby, Cognition, 85, 277-290.

Mealey, L. et al  (1996).  Enhanced memory for the faces of cheaters.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 17, 119-128.

Cummins, D. D.  (1999).  Cheater detection is modified by social rank: The impact of dominance on the evolution of cognitive functions, Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 229-248.

Spatial abilities:  Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1995). Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: A meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250–270.

Silverman, I., Choi, J. & Peters, M. (2007). The hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences in spatial abilities: Data from 40 countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36. 261-268.

Ecuyer-Dab, I & Robert, M. (2007). The female advantage in object location memory according to the foraging hypothesis: A critical analysis.  Human Nature, 18, 365-385.

New, J., Krasnow, M., Tuxaw, D. & Gaulin, S. J. C. (2007). Spatial adaptations for plant foraging: Women excel and calories count. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 2679-2684.

Language: Pinker, S. & Bloom, P.  (1992).  Natural language and natural selection.  In Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (Eds.), The Adapted Mind:  Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, Oxford University Press, pp 451-494.

Fernald, A.  (1992).  Human maternal vocalizations to infants as biologically relevant signals:  An evolutionary perspective.  In Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (Eds.), The Adapted Mind:  Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, Oxford University Press, pp 391-428.

Emotional expression:  Brown, W. M., Palameta, B. and Moore, C. (2003). Are there nonverbal cues to commitment? An exploratory study using the zero-acquaintance video presentation paradigm. Evolutionary Psychology, 1, 42-69.



ADHD: Chuansheng, C., Burton, M., Greenberger, E., & Dmitrieva, J.  (1999).  Population migration and the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globe, Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 309-324

Autism:  Shaner, A., Miller, G., & Mintz, J. (2004). Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator. Human Nature, 19, 389-413.

Frith et al (1991).  The cognitive basis of a biological disorder. Trends in Neurosciences, 14, 433-438.

Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 248-254.

Bushwick, N. L. (2001). Social learning and the etiology of autism. New Ideas in Psychology, 19, 49-75.

Badcock, C. & Crespi, B. (2006). Imbalanced genomic imprinting in brain development: an evolutionary basis for the aetiology of autism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology  19, 1007-1032.

Abrahams, B. S. & Geshwind, D. H. (2008). Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology. Nature Reviews: Genetics  9, 341-355.

Ramachandran, V. S. & Oberman, L. M. (2006).  Broken mirrors: A theory of autism. Scientific American 62-69.

Anxiety:  Marks, I. M. & Nesse, R. M.  (1994).  Fear and fitness:  An evolutionary analysis.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 247-261.

Eating disorders:  Faer, L. M., Hendricks, A., Abed, R., & Figueredo, A. J. (2005). The evolutionary psychology of eating disorders: Female competition for mates or for status? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78, 397–417.

Salmon, C., Crawford, C., Dane, L. & Zuberbier, O. (2008). Ancestral mechanisms in modern environments: Impact of competition and stressors on body image and dieting behavior. Human Nature, 19, 103-117.

Fears and phobias:  Öhman, A. & Mineka, S. (2001). Fears, phobias and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 108, 483-522.

Gerdes, A. B. M. et al.  (2009).  Spiders are special: fear and disgust evoked by pictures of arthropods. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 66-73.

Post-partum depression:  Hagen, E. H.  (2002).  Depression as bargaining: The case postpartum.  Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 323-336.

Rape:  Thornhill, R. & Thornhill, N. W.  (1983).  Human rape:  An evolutionary analysis.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 4, 137-173.

Jones, O. D.  (1999).  Sex, culture and the biology of rape:  Toward explanation and prevention.  California Law Review, 87, 827-942.

Palmer, C. T., and Thornhill, R. (2003). A posse of good citizens brings outlaw evolutionists to justice. A response to Evolution, Gender, and Rape. Edited by Cheryl Brown Travis. (2003). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Evolutionary Psychology, 1, 10-27.

Schizophrenia:  Shaner, A., Miller, G., & Mintz, J. (2004). Schizophrenia as one extreme of a sexually selected fitness indicator. Schizophrenia Research, 70, 101–109.                     D. R. Wilson critique of this paper.

Sociopathy:  Mealey, L.  (1995).  The sociobiology of sociopathy.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523-599.

Lalumičre,M.T., Harris, M. G. & Rice,M. E. (2001). Psychopathy and developmental instability. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 75–92.

Suicide:  de Catazano, D.  (1995).  Reproductive Status, Family Interactions, and Suicidal Ideation: Surveys of the General Public and High-Risk Groups.  Evolution and Human Behavior, 16, 385-394.


Individual Differences & Personality

Nettle, D. (2007). An evolutionary approach to the extraversion continuum. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 363-373.

Buss & Greiling (1999).  Adaptive individual differences.  Journal of Personality. 

Figueredo, A.J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B.H., & Schneider, S.M.R. (2007). The K-factor, covitality, and personality: A psychometric test of life history theory. Human Nature, 18, 47–73.


Cultural Evolution

Henrich, J., Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (2008). Five misunderstandings about cultural evolution. Human Nature, 19, 119-137.

Flinn, M. V. (1997). Culture and the evolution of social learning. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 23-67.



Race & discrimination:  Kurzban, R., Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L.  (2001)  Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 15387-15392.

Food selection and preparation:  Sherman, P. W. & Hash, G. A. (2001).  Why vegetable recipes are not very spicy.  Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 147-163.

Morning sickness:  Flaxman, S. M. & Sherman, P. W.  (2002).  Is morning sickness maladaptive? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17, 359.

Lactose intolerance:  Bloom, G. & Sherman, P. W. (2004). Dairying barriers affect the distribution of lactose malaborption. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 301el.