Chapter 4

Basic Motivation Concepts

I. What is motivation?

II. Theories of motivation

A. Content theories

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Alderfer's ERG Theory

McClelland's Theory of Needs

B. Process theories

Vroom's Expectancy Theory

Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

Locke's Goal-Setting Theory

Adam's Equity Theory

 

 

I. What is motivation?

The factors that initiate, direct, and sustain human behavior over time.

II. Theories of motivation

    1. Content theories: attempt to specify what sorts

of events or outcomes motivate behavior

1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

suggests that behavior is driven by the urge to fulfil five fundamental needs:

physiological

safety

social (love)

esteem

self-actualization

2) Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

suggests that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction

intrinsic factors (motivator)

external factors (hygiene factor)

Key points:

  1. Every worker has two sets of needs or requirements: motivator needs and hygiene needs.
  2. When motivator needs are met, workers will be satisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will not be satisfied.
  1. When hygiene needs are met, workers will not be dissatisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will be dissatisfied.

3) Alderfer's ERG Theory

suggests that behavior is driven by the urge to fulfil three essential needs:

existence

relatedness

growth

4) McClelland's Theory of Achievement Motivation

suggests that three needs are important for us to understand motivation

need for achievement

need for power

need for affiliation

    1. Process theories: attempt to specify how different

kinds of events or outcomes motivate behavior

1) Vroom's Expectancy Theory (VIE theory)

explains behavior as a function of expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences

Expectancy: the expectation that effort will result in performance

Range from 0 to 1

Instrumentality: the expectation that performance will result in reward

Range from -1 to 1

 

Valence: the valence of rewards an individual anticipates receiving from a particular outcome.

Range from -1 to +1

 

MF (Motivation Force) = E x I x V

= e (E-->P) x e (P-->R) x v (R)

(0-1) (-1--+1) (-1--+1)

2) Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

3) Locke's Goal-Setting Theory

suggests that behavior is driven by goals and aspirations, such that specific and difficult goals lead to higher levels of achievement.

4) Adam's Equity Theory (Perceived fairness)

suggests that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities.

Op Oo

Equity:

Ip Io

 

Op Oo Op Oo

Inequity:

Ip Io Ip Io

Inputs: anything that individuals feel they personally contribute in a given work setting

Outcomes: all the factors that the individual

perceives as having some personal value

A few important points:

How to reduce the feeling of inequity?

Alter inputs

Alter outcomes

Change perceptions (of self or of others)

Choose a different referent

Change the referent's behavior