Notes for Chapter 5

1See the fairly representative sample at

2"It is as if, in fully engaging with the surface of the painting, we were empowered to look past or through the spectator in the picture and to identify our looking with that which looks back: not only to admit the presence of the literal decorated surface, but simultaneously to occupy that imaginary position from which the woman lying on the bed looks out." --Charles Harrison, "Modernism," in Critical Terms for Art History, p.151

The idea that we see ourselves as seen by the figure meeting our gaze, develops suggestions by Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Jacques Lacan, though for them this reversal of seer and seen is a characteristic of all visuality, not of any one work or works in particular.