Notes for Chapter One

1 Johanna Drucker, The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and Modern Art, 1909-23, University of Chicago Press, 1994.

2Robert Pincus-Witter expends some effort to link Baldessari to Magritte, mainly via Magritte's most reflexive of works ("The Treachery of Images"--that is, the famous "This Is Not a Pipe").

3James Harkness, "Translator's Introduction" to This is not a Pipe, citing Suzi Gablik, Magritte, New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1970.

4 So I find Foucault's notion that Magritte's explorations of signification are of a failed calligraphy not helpful.

5Foucault, Michel. This is Not a Pipe, tran. and ed. James Harkness. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1982.

6Peter Sterckx, "Magritte: The Image as Mechanism," Magritte, ed. Didier Ottinger. Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1996.

7 Nelson Goodman vigorously opposed resemblance as the mode of representation special to pictures, but he generally has not persuaded scholars to abandon resemblance. See Nyírí (2000 and on line).

8 There is a secondary iconicity in a compound formation like blackboard which has enjoyed visual, descriptive force (though less so now as the items are replaced with "white boards"); firewall, by contrast, is based on similarity of function, not form.

9"Les mots et les images," La Révolution Surréaliste, n. 12. (15 December 1929), pp. 32-33.

10A sampler of Uelsmann's work can be seen at And see image in Chapter 3 on Photomontage .

11But it would not result in comparison-montage, which is just as narrow: "find the common factor"

12 glass/index.htm

13Susan Sontag: "As Brecht points out, a photograph of the Krupp works reveals virtually nothing about that organization. In contrast to the amorous relation, which is based on how something looks, understanding is based on how it functions. And functioning takes place in time, and must be explained in time. Only that which narrates can make us understand" (On Photography 23).

14 [interview with Benjamin Buchloh, published as "A Conversation with Martha Rosler" in Martha Rosler: Positions in the Life World (Ikon Gallery/Generali Foundation/MIT Press, 1998), p. 42].

15 Walter Benjamin, "A Short History of Photography," trans. Phil Patton, Artforum 15(1977) Feb., p. 51 (referred to by Rosler in the Buchloh interview)

16Rosler explains what she is about in this piece and cites the pieces of critical theory that inform it in an article "In the Place of the Public" which, like the exhibit, has undergone revisions. See Assemblage 24:44-79 (1994).