# Final

## No late finals will be accepted.

Note: You may not discuss the final with other students (until after everyone has turned it in). Please send any questions about the final directly to me (via email) rather than posting on Canvas. I will respond by email and post answers as appropriate on the Canvas. Please read the Canvas discussion.

Note 2: Finals will be graded exactly as turned in via Canvas. It is the student's responsibility to double check that the pdf file is correct and legible.

### Problem 1. A Tree (60pts)

A. Draw a tree for the following sentence, using the grammar from the textbook (Appendix A, plus the answers to Ch 8 Problem 2 available through Canvas) and according to the instructions below. (NB: This problem is not only about long distance dependencies, but also about multiple phenomena involving the rules and principles of our grammar.)

• This sonata is anticipated to be simple to play and easy to impress audiences with.

Instructions

1. Show the whole tree (i.e., no triangles under nodes).
2. Assume lexical entries for the words instantiating appropriate types from the grammar. Specific tips:
• There is one orv-lxm.
• There are two easy-type adjectives.
• The preposition is functioning as a modifier.
• Five different phrase structure rules are used, one nine different times.
• You are not asked to show ARG-ST values, but it may be helpful to work out what they are.
3. Label each node with an appropriate abbreviation (e.g., NP). Use CONJ as the abbreviation for a feature structure that is [HEAD conj].
4. Show the values of SPR, COMPS, MOD, GAP, and STOP-GAP where they are non-empty. These values should include tags where they are identified with other structures in the tree (whole nodes or the value of SPR, COMPS, GAP and/or STOP-GAP on other nodes). At least one instance of each tag should be associated with a category abbreivation (e.g., NP). If the grammar requires coindexing (but not complete identification), show that with a subcript (NP_i).
5. Please do NOT show the value for any other features. The tree is big enough as it is!
6. Likewise, please do NOT show feature paths like SYN and VAL.
7. Check your work: The correct tree has 29 nodes, not counting the leaves (word forms). I found 42 45 46 non-empty values for SPR, COMPS, MOD, GAP and STOP-GAP collectively. I used tags numbered 1-16 1-17, plus the index i. (You don't have to use the exact same numbers in the same places; this is meant to help you check that you have the right number of sets of identities.) [Note: This was updated to read 45 and 1-17 on 3/19/19 and to 46 on 3/20/19]
8. Formatting tip: If you can't fit the tree on one page, you can split it into two parts, and leave a note saying how they fit together. Please do NOT use a tiny font.

B. Describe each step in the cascade of identities that link the INST value of the sonata predication to the PLAYED value of play predication. Your answer should take the form of an enumerated list. Each item in the list should describe one step, i.e., state which features are required to have the same value and state which lexical entry, rule or principle of the grammar requires this. If you are using latex to write your final, please use this template for this section.

I found 32 steps in this chain. You do not need to mention any lexical rules, nor any specific lexical types. Identities that come from either can be described as enforced by the lexical entries themselves. You should, however, account for identities required by the ARP (I found 11 of those).

Please format your answer as a table, following the example below, where I given you the first and last links in the chain, plus one from the middle. (NB: The assignment of members of the identity as 'first' and 'second' is arbitrary, and either order is acceptable. Similarly, the steps can be listed in any order, though the problem should be easier if you follow the chain step by step.)

Grammar entity (lex entry, phrase structure rule, principle) First member of identitySecond member of identity
1.Lexical entry
for sonata
The INDEX value
of N sonata
the INST value of
the sontata predication
...
ARPThe second element of the
ARG-ST of the V anticipated
The sole element of the
COMPS list of the V anticipated
...
32.Lexical entry
for play
The INDEX of the second element of
the ARG-ST of the V play
The PLAYED value
in its play predication

### Problem 2. Some Lexical Rules and a Feature Structure (40pts)

A. For each word in the following sentence, list the lexical rules involved in licensing its word structure.

• Wasn't Kim told to expect it to surprise Chris that Pat left?

Notes:

• Again, this question is cumulative, and not about any one particular phenomenon.
• Use the grammar in Appendix A for reference.
• While the question doesn't ask for lexical types, in order to answer it, you'll need to determine the lexical types for each of the relevant lexical entries.
• While you do not need to provide a tree for your answer, it might help you work through the problem to sketch one out.

Check your work: Though there are 12 words in the sentence, they collectively represent 15 16 applications of lexical rules. One lexical rule is used 6 times. [Note: This was updated to read 16 on 3/18/19.]

B. Show the word structure for Wasn't as it appears in this sentence. Include the effects of the lexical rule(s) it undergoes as well as constraints inherited from types (e.g., those on auxv-lxm and its supertypes, as well as those on word). You don't need to show the RESTR values of the elements of the ARG-ST and valence lists or any other information that is underspecified by the combination of the lexical entry and lexcial rules but rather 'unifed in' from other parts of the tree.

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