1. WRITING ARABIC

  2. The Definite Article

    1. The Moon Letters [b,c,f,g4,g,h3,h5,h,k3,k,l,m,v,y]

      1. Isolated word with definite article examples: al-ḳamar <=> al-5k3amar; el-münīr <=> el-5mu0ni1r

      2. With definite article in compound examples: ümerā’ü’l-kelām <=> u5mera1’3u0’4l-3kela1m; fī’l-mekteb <=> fi1’4l-3mekteb

      3. Conversions [‘4l-3]:

        1. in Arabic ‘4 => <space>alef (+1575);

        2. in OT ‘4 => <no space>‘ (apostrophe);

        3. in TT ‘4 => <no symbol><no space>;

        4. in Arabic -3 => <no symbol><no space>;

        5. in OT -3 => - (dash);

        6. in TT -3 => <no symbol><no space> [e.g. filmekteb].

    2. The Sun Letters [d,d3,n,r,s,s2,s3,s5,t,t3,z3,z4,z5,z]

      1. Isolated word with definite article examples: ed-dünyā <=> el2d-3du0nya1; aẓ-ẓarf <=> al2z3-3z3arf [TT azzarf]

      2. With definite article in compound examples: (OT) fī’d-dünyā <=> fi1’5l2d-3du0nya1 [TT fiddünya]; (multiple compound) (OT) fī’ẓ-ẓarfi’ṣ-ṣaġīr <=> fi1’5l2z3-3z3arfi’5s3ag4i1r [TT fizzarfissağir].

      3. Conversions:

        1. in Arabic ‘5 => <space>alef (+1575)

        2. in Arabic l2<letter> => lam (+1604)<no space><no letter> [e.g. ‘5l2d => +1575;+1604]

        3. in Arabic -3 => ; <no symbol><no space>;

        4. in OT ‘5 => ‘ (apostrophe +0027)

        5. in OT l2 => <no symbol><no space>

        6. in OT -3 => - (dash);

        7. in TT ‘5 (apostrophe) <no symbol><no space>; l2 <no symbol><no space>; ‘3 <no symbol><no space>