Alexander Svoboda's Journal of a Journey
(new features)

April


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Journal
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of a Journey to Europe
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By Land Road
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via Damascus and Beirut
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Starting on the 10th of April 1897
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1897
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Alexander Svoboda

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Departure from Baghdad and Farewells

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April 10th
And so, we decided to travel to Europe . Our departure from here will be
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on Wednesday morning, that is, on the 13th of this month"thirteenth of the month" Alexander is mistaken about the date, Wednesday is the 14th of the month.. We have already hired the riding animals
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and a mule-litterMule litter, 'taḫterewān': From the Persian "taḫt-e revān" (taḫt meaning seat or throne, revān meaning moving). It was commonly used in Iraq, sometimes in the abbreviated form taḫt . In the English diary of the return journal, Alexander used the term teḫtersin, for which we have been unable to find any references. and have arranged everything, nothing is left but to put Baghdad behind us.
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For the past three days till now, many visitors have come and are still coming to bid us goodbye,
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especially our family who are coming often to visit us. We are traveling in the company of
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the English Consul-GeneralThe word 'Balioz' was originally the Turkish form of the title of the 'Baglio', the Venetian Representative to the Ottoman court. In later years the word 'Balioz' became a vulgar term for any foreign consul. The British Consulate or Residency in Baghdad was commonly known among the inhabitants there as ‘the house of the Balioz'. Here the term refers to the British Consul-General. Colonel MocklerColonel Edward Mockler: The British Consul General in Baghdad from 1892 to 1897, when he was replaced by Colonel William Loch and journeyed overland to Cairo with Alexander Richard Svoboda and his parents. Born in 1839, he served in several positions in the British Army in India and the Middle East. He was also a scholar and linguist. For more information see (http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Edward_Mockler) the Edward Mockler page in the Svobodapedia. who has decided to go to London . Therefore, we shall take
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the land road that is to ad-Dayrad-Dayr: an abbreviation commonly used by the diarist for the town Dayr-Az-Zawr., Damascus and Beirut, and thence to Cairo,
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April 11th
God willing.
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As today is the last Sunday for us in Baghdad , we therefore started after
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hearing mass to go around and bid our friends goodbye. We made
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visits to nearly as many as twenty houses and a good number of people
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came to say goodbye and wish us a happy journey. At sunset, we came
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together with my paternal Aunt ElizaSophie Elizabeth Svoboda at the house of her husband KasperkhanKasperkhan: The husband of Sophie Elizabeth Svoboda, who is referred to by Alexander as "Aunt Eliza." and we returned at
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3 Turkish timeTurkish time: refers to the Turkish version of the traditional time-keeping called ġurūbī (sunset) time or eẕānī [edhānī] (call-to-prayer) time. According to this practice the "day" began at sunset and was divided into two 12 hour periods, the first ending at sunrise and the second at sunset. The period between sunset and sunrise was divided into twelfths as was the period between sunrise and sunset. This resulted in "hours" that varied in length throughout the year. In the "Turkish time" developed after the spread of mechanical clocks, the day was divided into two periods of 12 hours of equal length beginning at sunset. All clocks were re-set at sunset. "European time" was "mean time" which ran from high noon to high noon with regular hours and had no other connection to hours of light and dark. very pleased and happy. I also heard
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at sunset today, by telegraph تيلكراف [tīlkrāf]: telegraph, also as tīl [trk. tel ="wire"]. The word tel is the common Turkish word for ‘wire' and is used to mean "a telegram" (as in English). In Iraq it was used to colloquially to mean "the telegraph". See also (http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Telegraph&action=edit&redlink=1) Telegraph in the Svobodapedia reference. coming from Basra to the House of LynchThe House of Lynch: The Lynch Brothers Trading Company, a shipping and trade conglomerate operating mainly in the Middle East, founded the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company in 1861. It operated two 100 ton steamers between Basra and Baghdad along the River Tigris because the Euphrates River was thought to be unsuited to navigation by deep-draft vessels. These steamers transported a mix of passengers, wool, dates, rice, and other cargo. http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Lynch_Brothers_Trading_Company, that
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they had been informed of Iskander Wakil's death in Basra due to tuberculosis.
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Yesterday at 10 Western timeWestern [al-la-franga] time: see (note xml:id="N002-17") "Turkish time"., the new English Consul-General whose name is Colonel LochColonel William Loch (1846-1901) received his commission in 1866 and served in several political offices in India and the Middle East. He replaced Colonel Edward Mockler as Consul-General in Baghdad in 1897. http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=William_Loch, had come
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to Baghdad from Basra together with his wife and Major FaganFagan: Major Charles George Forbes Fagan, 1856-1943, was born to a military family. He served in the second Afghan War of 1878-1880. When he met Alexander Svoboda he was Assistant Political Agent in Basra. See http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Major_Charles_George_Forbes_Fagan
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who is the Consul in Basra.

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Since we have decided to travel with Colonel Mockler
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who has for quite some time been awaiting Colonel Loch 's arrival to go from Baghdad to London for his retirement,
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it is therefore more certain now that our journey will be on Wednesday.
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April 12th
A cloudy and rainy morning today with an east wind.
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The clouds were thick and dark but the weather cleared after a few hours.
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I went to the office in the afternoon and asked Colonel Mockler for a certificate of my two years service
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at the Consulate [al-ḳonṣolḫāne] Consulate: Here the diarist refers to the British Consulate in Baghdad, which was established under Mamluk rule in 1802 and staffed by a British Consul-General who also acted as a political agent to the Government of India and ranked second to the British Ambassador in Istanbul. and he gave me his word to have it ready for me tomorrow. We went at sunset
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for a last visit to the home of my maternal Uncle Antone and they said that their intention is
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to send with us their son Joury who will go to school in Beirut . One hour before sunset,
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I also brought the harmonium I have at home to my Uncle's house to leave it in their care
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while we are away. Today too, many people, friends and relatives came to bid us goodbye.
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April 13th
An extremely miserable night, cloudy with thunder that never ceased.
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A very heavy rain fell at midnight. It soaked all the streets and made them like rivers but it broke up and cleared
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in the morning with an extremely lovely sun and it became a nice spring day.
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Today again, many people came to bid us goodbye but when I went to the office, I heard
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that Colonel Mockler had changed his mind from leaving on Wednesday to leaving Thursday afternoon .
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Truthfully, I felt very bad because of these changes, with something new ever day.
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Thus, we decided that we would hopefully travel on Thursday afternoon. The family of
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Uncle HenryTODO: This note will identify Henry. on my father's side, came to visit us at sunset with Aunt Medula and their sons Jany and Artine.
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They stayed with us till half past one but they did not bid us a final goodbye. I went in the afternoon
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to bid some friends goodbye and afterwards I went to see the mule-litter in which we are to travel.
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April 14th
Today is a very happy day; the sun is shining with no clouds at all
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and the mud has somewhat dried in the streets.

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After visiting some friends and family, I came home and heard
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that Uncle Antone , feeling very grieved for his son, had changed his mind and his son Joury will not travel with us.
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What a pity for Uncle Antone to miss an opportunity like this that may not
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present itself again. My paternal Aunt Emilia came to our house before noon today.
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We asked her have breakfast with us and she accepted.
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After breakfast, my friend Jamil Abdelkarim came to see me and he brought with him a letter
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that I took and put with my private papers. It is addressed to the son of
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Dinha Razook who lives at Dayr az-Zawr . Catherine
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Yaghechi came to bid us goodbye, and she was very sad about our parting.
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April 15th
Today is the day of our journey. As we had understood yesterday,
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we will cross to the other bank in the afternoon today. This morning
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was cloudy and windy, a very unpleasant morning, but the weather cleared
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two hours after sunrise and the day became nice and lovely. After I had
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been to church and received Holy Communion because today is Easter Thursday,
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I returned home at 8- Western time .
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I was there preparing my things and sealing the closet doors at the kefeshkan Kefeshkan: From the Persian kefsh-ken "a place for removing shoes" (kefsh =shoe, ken, from kenden=to dig up, peel off). As used in Iraq it referred to a small elevated chamber in old Baghdad houses used mostly for storage. It was usually reached by the stair leading to the roof or by a wooden ladder. Joseph Svoboda’s diaries also indicate that it was used for sleeping during hot weather.
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when some friends came to see me and I bid them goodbye for the last time.
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At noon, we were awaiting the arrival of the mules to take the things
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and when it turned one o'clock in the afternoon , all our family started coming to our house
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for the last goodbye. Truthfully, I found it very difficult when I began
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to talk to them about parting for they were all very grieved.
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At last, when it turned 2:00 Western time , our mules came and they started
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loading the baggage. So all our family and I too cried loudly,

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I did not think that the parting would be so difficult. After they had tied on
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the loads, they left the house with an officer whom we had taken on by means of an official decree
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and we ordered them to cross to al-Khirr In 1897, the Khirr Bridge was inaugurated in the presence of provincial governor Ata Pasha, as well as Field Marshal Rajab Pasha and high state officials, both military and civilian. The bridge was called the Hamidi Bridge, but people continued to call it the Khirr Bridge. and wait for us there where we would
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spend the night. When it was time to part and the hour neared, our family-
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my paternal Aunts Emilia, Eliza, and MedulaMedula: Alexander’s half-sister, the oldest of the children of his mother Eliza Jebra Marine and Fathulla Sayegh. and Aunt Emilia's daughter, Alice with Uncle Henry's daughter
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Louise and her mother, Aunt Eliza 's daughters Tarousa and Régina , and the wife of my maternal
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Uncle Antone with her daughters Rosie and Hélène - all began to cry
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loudly in sorrow at our parting. For the first time in my life, I found myself so unhappy
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to be saying goodbye that the tears did not cease for a moment. The affection
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that they showed on their part for me was very strong and I had not thought that
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they loved me so much. At last, it turned 4 Western time and I went up for the last time to the kefeshkan .
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I put on the iqaliqal and kaffiyeh: the headscarf (kaffiyeh) worn by Middle Eastern males, which is fastened to the head by a corded loop (iqal, iḳāl). and the kaffiyehiqal and kaffiyeh: the headscarf (kaffiyeh) worn by Middle Eastern males, which is fastened to the head by a corded loop (iqal, iḳāl). and came down from my dear kefeshkan for the last time
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bidding it farewell and saying 'Adieu, who knows
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when I will see you again'. As I joined our family wearing
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full riding outfit, they all burst into tears, at which my father arose
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and said: "We must leave you all." Thus, together with my mother and father, we kissed
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all our family, each in turn, with tears pouring down like rain. We came down to the inner court and they
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stood on the balcony waving to us, so I turned my eyes and said:
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"I commend you to God's protection. O, all my family, pray for me and wish me luck!".
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When I went out by the door, they were all at the window waving to me.
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I turned for a final look and waved back to them with my kufiya for the last time but
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copious tears were running down my cheeks.
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Thus, I bade our family and our house goodbye and turned my head toward the market. While
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walking down the road to the bridgebridge: The Baghdad Bridge. In the last decade of the nineteenth century there were two bridges crossing the Tigris, which connected the two parts of Baghdad: Karkh to the west and Ressafa to the east. The Baghdad Bridge, a very old bridge, was at the center of the town. Upstream was the Aʿzamiya Bridge near to the Bab-Al-Muʿazzam formerly known as the Bab Khurasan (the Khurasan Gate), which connected the little town of Kādhimiya [Kāẓimīya] to the district of Mu'azzam. Both bridges were approximately 200 m long. The Baghdad bridge was wider, at about 8 m. They were both pontoon-type bridges consisting of wooden planks laid on barges coated with bitumen and fastened to buoys by means of iron chains. A modern Baghdad Bridge ordered by the then Ottoman governor of Baghdad province, Namık Pasha, was completed in 1902. It was later burnt (1916) by retreating Turkish troops. , I met my friend Jamil Krekor

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and he accompanied me together with Jamil Abdulkarim , Shukrullah Sayegh and Yacoob
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Tessy , the husband of my sister Medula , who were going with us. We walked across the bridge and then, since Uncle Henry
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was on board the KhalifaKhalifa: The name of one of Lynch (Euphrates and Tigris Shipping Company) steamships. steamship that is due to leave today, he came up on the ship's deck
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and saluted us. Likewise, we waved to him until we passed him and crossed over the bridge. We came to AllawiAlawi-el-Hilla: ʿAlawi al-Ḥilla 33° 20' 0" North, 44° 23' 0" East [to be completed]
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al-Hilla Alawi-el-Hilla: ʿAlawi al-Ḥilla 33° 20' 0" North, 44° 23' 0" East [to be completed] and there we found the riding animals ready to take us to al-Khirr .
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Thus, the time to bid farewell to the rest neared too, so we kissed each other and then turned towards al-Khirr , and so dear Baghdad
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was left behind us. I turned back towards my homeland and said 'Farewell to thee, land of the beloved,
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land of the dear ones, when will we meet again?' The hour was 4- Western time and we mounted the animals and set out.
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At 4= , we came to al-Khirr bridge and crossed over. We went a little farther and we found the entire caravan
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ready, our tent pitched with the baggage around it. Colonel
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Mockler 's tents and baggage had also arrived and the tents of Issa az-Zhair
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who will travel with us to Damascus with his little son Abdullah in order to take him to school there. We entered our tent and rested,
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but I was feeling very pained by the parting that for the first time struck me with grief.
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Then, I summoned up patience and put my trust in God for sorrow is of no avail.
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After we arrived I was pleased to write to my dear Louise and tell her how grieved I was
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at parting with her. So I took paper and pen out of my satchel and wrote a few lines. A half an hour before sunset,
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I saw Colonel Mockler coming bringing the bicycle and following him were Mrs.
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Mockler and Ms. TannerTanner: 'Miss Tanner'. We have no references for her. She was most likely an employee of the British Residency. with Uncle Antone . After they dismounted, Uncle Antone
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came to see us and we bade him stay for dinner and to spend the night. A few minutes after sunset,
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Aunt Eliza 's son Jany came from town and I was truly quite happy to see him come from our family.
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He stayed with us overnight and we all dined together and went to bed but we absolutely could not sleep
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because we were still confused and unsettled. Jany bedded down
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in the mule-litter and Uncle Antone on the carpet covered with the woolen cloaks. This is the last
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day we are near Baghdad , as the arrangement with
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Colonel Mockler was to wake up at 8:00 Western time tomorrow and go on to the first station.

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Departure from the Homeland and the Journey from al-Khirr

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April 16th
We were up at dawn today, all of us awake from this cursed night.
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After we drank tea , we heard that the Khalifa steamship will pass by our place
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and we saw its smoke from a distance. We hurried off at once and went towards the river. We saw the steamship
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coming and just then we also caught sight of Aunt Eliza 's son Artine who had come from Baghdad
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to see us. When the steamship passed, Uncle Henry was standing on deck waving to us
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and so did we until he was out of sight. When it turned 8:00 Western time we struck the tents
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and they tied on the loads and prepared the caravan. They lifted our mule-litter as we
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must sit in it now and they put up the wooden ladder at its door.
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My mother got in and so did I and we sat inside. That was the first time in my life
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that I sat in a mule-litter. Thus, the entire caravan was ready and we were prepared to march.
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We put our trust in God, the mule-litter set out with us in it, the caravan following behind and Uncle Antone together with Jany
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and Artine , who were accompanying us. After traveling a half hour's distance, Uncle Antone approached us and we stopped
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the mule-litter. He dismounted and came to bid us goodbye as he had to return hastily to town.
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So we bade each other goodbye and our eyes shed tears afterwards because of the parting. Then we drove the mules on.
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Here, the entire desert is dry and much in need of rain. After we had gone for some 2 hours,
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in the distance, Baghdad still glittered at us and the minaretsminarets: These are the minarets of al-Kadhim/al-Kadhimiya [al-Kāẓim/al-Kāẓimīya] (also Persian: Mashhad-e Kāzimiya), a Shi’ite religious shrine in Baghdad with two gilded domes. Originally the burial place of the Imam Mūsā ibn Jaʿafar al-Kāẓim, the seventh imam of the Twelver Shi’a, who died in 799. Since then the shrine became a pilgrimage site for the Shi'ite community and a town grew round the graveyard, known as the Kādhimiya. In 835, the ninth imam, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī at-Tāḳī al-Jawād was also buried by the side of his grandfather. Hence the name Kāẓimayn (Kadhimayn), referring to the two Kāẓims (the enduring ones). A noted school of theology was founded in this town and it is still a source of learning. The present shrine dates back to the 16th century. The gold tiles for the two cupolas were provided by the Iranian Sha Agha Muhammad Khan in 1796. It is said that al-Manṣūr, the second Abbasid Caliph (754-775) ordered the construction of a graveyard here, on the west side of the Tigris, adjacent to his famous round city of Baghdad. His eldest son Jaʿfar al-Akbār was the first to be buried here in 767. The graveyard was also known as the Quraysh (Ḳurayş) cemetery and the western part of the mosque was known as the Sahn Quraysh (Ṣaḥn Ḳurayş—the Court of the Quraysh). Up until the early 20th century, the main language of the Kāẓimayn was Persian. too were visible. Finally,
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I bade the town goodbye from afar until we lost sight of any sign of Baghdad . When it turned 11:00 Western time ,
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Jany and Artine too bade us goodbe. They were the last who had accompanied us this far and so
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I gave Artine 3 letters, one to Louise , another to my dear
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friend Jany Pahlawan and the third to my friend Antoine Julietti, and I expressed to them my
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great sorrow at parting with them. Thus, we marched on unaccompanied, cutting across lands,

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wastelands and rough terrain. At 12:00 we approached AgargoafAgargoaf/Aqar Quf/‘Akarkūf: A prominent landmark located in the desert of Southern Mesopotamia, situated about nine miles to the north west beyond the town of Baghdad near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers. It is known to be the remains of a ziggurat that marks the site of the 14th century (BCE) Kassite city of Dur Kurigalzu. Originally a huge tower of more than fifty meters in height on a 70 X 68 meters base, only the base remains today with the inner mud-brick core rising above it on our right and passed it.
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It remained in view until 2:00 o'clock when finally, it appeared as a dotdot: The word translated as "dot" here is a problem word. The Arabic is clearly written as "nun, ghayn, ṭa, alif, hamza [nuġṭāʾ?]" but no such word appears to exist in either literary Arabic or the dialects. The closest match is the form "nun, ghayn, ṭa (nuġuṭ)" found in several standard dictionaries of classical Arabic including the Lisānu’l-ʿArab and al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ [http://www.baheth.info] with the meaning "a tall person". We know that Alexander would have had an excellent education in classical Arabic at the Carmelite School in Baghdad, which boasted such outstanding teachers as the noted philologist Pere Anastas and it is somewhat remotely possible that he might have retained a vague memory of a classical term that he for some unknown reason wrote with the added alif and hamza. Indeed the receding sight of Agargoaf might have resembled a "tall person". However, given the context we have leaned toward the very tentative conclusion that Alexander was rendering his pronunciation of the word "nuḳṭa" in the meaning of "dot". When "nuḳṭa" is used in the sense of a "police post" he spells it correctly but it is possible that when it means "dot" he thinks of it as a different word which he renders phonetically [nuġṭā’]. to us until we could see it no more.
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And so, we urged the riding animals on. Sometimes I get out of the mule-litter to ride in place of my father.
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At other times I walk and then get in the mule-litter again. Now and then
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we pass tents of the Arabs who are all az-Zoba Arabsaz-Zobaʿ: One of the three main branches—with the Abda and Aslam—of the Shammar tribal confederation which migrated to Iraq from the northern Najd in the 17th century and became a major power in the Jazīra up to Mosul. Alois Musil says of them, "The Zōbaʿ are descendents of the Ṭajj [Ṭayy] tribe. Their main camping ground lies between al-Mahmūdijje, Abu Ḥunta (Ḥabba), and the highroad from al-Felluǧe to Baghdad." (ME, p. 127.)' in these lands. The countryside is very much in need of rain. Some
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of it is cultivated with rain-fed plantations and every two hours we pass low hills
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and some desert areas with greenery. At 2:00 , we passed, at a distance on our left, the small shrine of an imam
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with a nearby well. At 2:00, we crossed a small arched bridge
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beneath which runs a narrow stream flowing from the Euphrates River . We stopped and drank a little from the stream
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and some people washed in it. Half an hour later, we came to another shrine,
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it is larger than the first and called 'Imam Abu Dhaher Al-H'mud' 'Imam Abū Dhāher al-H'mud' [İmām Abū Ẓāhir al-Ḥ’mūd]. Here, as is common in Iraq, "imam" (prayer leader) means "shrine" and does not necessarily refer to the title or occupation of the person named. This is probably the tomb of Ḥ’mūd ibn Ṯāmer (Ḳabr Ḥ’mūd), who was chief of the Muntefiḳ tribe early in the 19th century (see ME, p. 127). . Thus we were near to the first
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station, that is to say Abu GhraibAbu Gh'rayb, to be completed.. At the end, we came to a land covered with stones. We were across from a station called the
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SannīyaThe "sannīya" lands, refers to lands held personally by the sultan, "crown lands" Here Alexander may be referring to a building that preceded what Musil (ME, p. 126) calls the "Ḫān as-Seniyye" (the Crown Lands Inn) depot. It has a few officers to watch over the depot, where the provisions of the Sannīya are kept.
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This place seemed good to us and so we stopped the caravan. They took down the loads and pitched
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the tents. It was then 3= Western time . This land is also called Abu Ghraib .
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Our caravan has fifty riding animals and 3 mule-litters.
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After we had dismounted and settled down here, I took up the pen to write the above.
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Then having finished writing, I lay down and rested a little. When sunset came,
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we heard on all sides the cry of the francolin whose voice is very pleasant.
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It appears that this bird is abundant here. I took the opportunity to write a letter of few lines
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to our family telling them, among other things, about our health and my grief at parting with them.
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I decided to send it with the sons of the Nawab who traveled
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with us to go hawking at Falluja . We had an early dinner at sunset
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and slept the night through, because we were tired from the caravan's march.

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April 17th
We were up in the morning today and found the day extremely pleasant with a cold west wind.
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The night had been very cold, and almost like winter nights.
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It had rained a little at midnight but the morning was nice with clear weather. While we were
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in our tent, Tommy Dexter Tommy Dexter: Tom Dexter has a long history in Iraq. Captain R. E. Cheeseman [of the Secretariat of the High Commissioner for ʿIraq] in his 1923 article "A History of Steamboat Navigation on the Upper Tigris" (The Geographical Journal Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan. 1923, 27-34) relates a story that he received "first hand" from Tom Dexter, who at the time of his writing the article (1922) was a dragoman at the British Residency in Baghdad. According to Cheeseman’s account, a steamer named the Comet was built in Bombay to replace a steamer by the same name which had sailed out of Basra since 1852. Tom Dexter was, at the time, a 17 year-old apprentice at the Bombay dockyard. He was assigned to the post of engine-driver on the Comet’s trial voyage. Because he was a member of the foreign community in Baghdad of English and Armenian parentage, he was sent with the ship when it traveled to Baghdad in 1885. Shortly thereafter he served on it during an adventuresome exploratory journey up the Tigris to Mosul. Of the many amusing stories he related to Captain Cheeseman, we will cite just one, which has especial relevance to Alexander Svoboda’s journey in the company of the colorful Dexter. Cheeseman writes On one occasion, seeing a band of mounted Arabs in the distance, Dexter thought a visit on a bicycle might impress them. Mounting his 54 inch bicycle he went out to meet them dressed in his white uniform. The effect was not exactly that desired. The whole cavalcade turned and put their horses into a gallop, and nothing could be seen of the column but flying dust and gravel. Doubtless the unfamiliar outline had been sufficient and the mirage had done the rest. Subsequently a rumor reached the ship that a long thin white Jinn haunted the lands of Waush-haush, that was three times as high as a man and could travel faster than a horse. The bicycle afterwards became famous, and visitors from distant tribes came in from afar to see for themselves this wonder of machinery. (Navigation, 32.) At the time he accompanied the Svobodas and Colonel Mockler on their journey, Tom Dexter would have been 29 years old and may have been working for the Lynch Brothers as was Alexander’s father. It is also possible that the bicycle that accompanied the caravan and amused Alexander, was similar to or the same as Dexter’s famous machine. who is with Colonel Mockler came to tell us that Colonel Mockler
05
.
said that he cannot travel today because Mrs. Mockler is in poor health, and so he must
06
.
break the journey here. Truthfully, we regretted very much to hear this because today we had planned
07
.
to travel to Falluja . However, we had in the end to consent to this.
08
.
Then I asked Colonel Mockler to ride the bicycle for a while. I took it and tried to learn how to ride
09
.
it. Sometimes I fell off and at other times I went on riding. This was the first time in my life that I tried
10
Abu Ghraib
myself on a bicycle and I kept on trying for almost one hour. I found that I was very
11
.
swift and I rode by myself with no help about 10 times, but
12
.
when I got off afterwards, I felt tired to the utmost degree and as if all my bones were broken. However
13
.
I think that I will learn to ride it in time. We were obliged to spend the day here. So, at
14
.
9:00 Western time , we all went to the Sanniya depot across from our campsite and we toured around in it.
15
.
It has a big roof and some stores containing the provisions of the Sanniya. After breakfast,
16
.
Sheikh Dhaher al-H'mud came to visit us and sat in our tent. He is the son of the imam whose shrine we passed
17
.
yesterday afternoon at 3:00 Western time . The Sheikh,
18
.
almost 80 years of age, as he informed us, seems to be a wise and sensible man. We offered him Basra dates of which he ate some and he asked
19
.
us for eye medicine for his son who has sore eyes and we gave him a remedy"remedy": The Arabic here gives the letters "t-r-k-h" for which the various possibilities include "something left behind, abandoned, the property of a deceased person". None of these make much sense in context. Our tentative suggestion is that Alexander intends the word "tiryak/tiryaki" which is a "theriaca" (antidote, cure-all, medicinal compound, remedy). He may also be representing the European term "theriaca" in Arabic characters as he has done in other cases. . Half an hour later,
20
.
he mounted and rode back to his people. The Sheikh had wanted to see Colonel Mockler but he had gone hunting and so the Sheikh
21
.
left without seeing him. At 1:00 in the afternoon, Colonel
22
.
Mockler who had been hawking for some 5 hours returned from the hunt with 12 francolins. His servant came
23
.
with two for us but they are very small and have thin meat because it is their nesting season now
24
.
and they do not hunt this bird at this time.

Page 010


01
.
It was 3:00 o'clock when I awoke and had tea. Afterwards I went out
02
.
and toured the desert a little and at sunset, Colonel Mockler came to see us and returned
03
.
to his tents half an hour later.
04
April 18th
A nice and joyful morning with clear and cold weather. The night was
05
.
colder than yesterday's. As we had planned yesterday,
06
.
the caravan was prepared to travel to the second station, after tea, that is at 7:..Western time .
07
.
Then, everything was ready and we set out. The queasiness
08
Falluja
that I felt yesterday when I was in the mule-litter became somewhat less today. And so we traveled through
09
.
lands that were pleasant and flowery and nearly all had yellow flowers. Starting from Abu Ghraib ,
10
.
all the lands are full of large and small stones and the plains are even and flat.
11
.
From there on, the deserts became a little higher and then lower and at
12
.
9:25, we passed on our left a small hill on which a tomb finished with white plaster is built.
13
.
Then at 12:25, we reached Falluja village which came into view at a half-hour's distance.
14
.
Built on the Euphrates River , the village with some 400
15
.
to 500 souls, has 3 cafes, two inns and a small house belonging to Kathim PashaKathim Pasha: TBA
16
.
who together with Kerop AghaKerop Agha: Originally Persian but is used by the Ottomans both as a title of respect and as the title for certain military ranks, as well as for high ranking eunuchs, and for high ranking servants in noble households. had purchased most of the lands here. We came to
17
.
the village bridge and crossed over. It is narrow and made of 25 tarred boats.
18
.
This was the first time in my life that I saw the Euphrates River from such places.
19
.
When the caravan arrived, Colonel Mockler said that it would be better if we rested for about one hour
20
.
here and have tiffintiffin: Transcribed as "t,f,n" in the Arabic text. A usage popularized in British India with the meaning "lunch" or "a light meal/snack". . Then we will march on for a few hours more because, with the mule-litters, the third station is
21
.
about 10 or 12 hours away. So, we agreed to that and, after taking a light meal,
22
.
we also departed from Falluja intending to go halfway to
23
.
the third station. It was then 1:20 in the afternoon. Unlike the dry deserts in the morning,
24
.
the lands here are very wet and most of them are swamps. At 2:00

Page 011


01
.
Western time, we passed near some greenery with 24 date trees, 4 fig trees
02
.
and 1 white berry tree. This place is called the 'Orchard of the Lady of Sparrows'. Starting from
03
.
here, every five minutes we crossed arched bridges, some of which are high and others low.
04
.
Here, the deserts have turned green, the grass is plentiful, and the lands
05
Sin al-Thiban
resemble those of the Mi'danMiʿdan/ Maʿdan: the so-called "Marsh-Arabs", who dwelt in the swamps around Basra and in the vicinity of Amara. Led by powerful local sheikhs, they generally remained independent of the Ottoman Government and the Bedouin tribes of Iraq. They raised large herds of water buffalo and sheep and, on occasion, raided shipping traveling up the Euphrates. 's next to Basra . At 3:05 , we passed,
06
.
on our right, the date trees of SaqlawiyaSaqlawiya: [aṣ-Ṣaḳlawiya] In spelling this name, Alexander, as he often does, replaces the "qaf" (q) with "kef" (k), which represents "gaf" (g) which is the way that "qaf" was often pronounced in his dialect. He would have said "Saglawiya". It is the name of a canal connecting the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Ṣaḳlawiya canal branched from the Euphrates few miles above the village of Falluja upstream carrying its river water to the Tigris, entering the town of Baghdad to the South through the Masʿūdī canal that encircles the Western parts of Baghdad. The canal was closed in 1883 and by the early 19th century its bed was used as farmland. In his account of a 1912 journey along the Euphrates, Alois Musil twice refers to "the settlement of as-Saḳlāwiyye" [ME, pp. 151 and 152]. This is likely the site referred to by Alexander in his journal. and small hills on our left, where one can observe
07
.
the shining of the rocks far-off like diamonds. 10 minutes later we, at last,
08
.
reached our stopping place and encamped on the Euphrates River opposite the hills.
09
.
This place is called 'the Fly's tooth' (Sin al-Thiban) because the first hill is located here, ( Tel al-Awwal)
10
.
so far the very first beyond Baghdad. It was
11
.
5:00 in the afternoon and almost sunset when we put up the tents. Here the plainsplains [as-saḥāb]: We were unable to find a direct reference for the word as-saḥāb with any meaning that makes sense. The usual meaning (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman) of "clouds, cloud" is not tenable here. Our conjecture is that Alexander has confused and conflated s-ḥ-b with s-h-b which in the form sahb, suhūb means "level country, plains", which fits the sense of the passages in which it is used. are pleasant.
12
.
Today my health has much changed since morning and I have a severe cold.
13
.
I got worse at sunset and we will see how I will feel by tomorrow.
14
.
I therefore went to bed immediately after dinner. The decision was made that tomorrow we will go directly to
15
.
RamadiAr-Ramādī: (Also Al-Ramadi and ar-Rumādī), name of a town to the North-West of Baghdad on the Euphrates River. It was founded and built in 1869 by the Ottoman Wali of Baghdad Midḥat Pasha (1869-1872) especially to control the nomadic Dulaim (Dulaym/D'laim) tribes of the region, but it also proved to be an important stopping point along the caravan route between Baghdad and the Levant. Ar-Ramadi is the capital of al-Anbar province in Iraq and most its inhabitants are Sunni Moslems from the Dulaim tribe. Alois Musil’s account of his 1912 journey describes ar-Ramādī as a "wealthy settlement of about fifteen hundred inhabitants" with extensive land holdings. It also had a population of some 150 Jews who had their own synagogue. [ME, 33] , the third station.
16
April 19th
An extremely cold morning with a strong east wind.
17
.
The night I spent was the most miserable because I had a fever from sunset till morning
18
.
and the night was as cold as can be. I was in agony until daylight dawned.
19
.
7:00 , the caravan was prepared to march but since the hill of the 'Fly's
20
.
Tooth' is nearby, I wanted very much to go and climb it. So I, at once, took the horse
21
.
and together with the officer, went riding towards the hill. I reached it in a half an hour and wanted
22
.
to climb it on horseback but the horse would not go. I therefore dismounted,
23
.
left the horse with the officer and went on foot up the hill which is almost 30 meters high.
24
.
Then I preferred to stay on top and await the caravan.

Page 012


01
.
It came into view half an hour later with Colonel Mockler and the riflemen at its head. After coming down, I learned from Colonel Mockler
02
.
that I had had a narrow escape from a grave fate. While I sat motionless on the hilltop wearing
03
.
clothes the same color as the hill and only my head black, Colonol Mockler, waiting for me
04
.
from a distance, mistook my head for a bird and took out guns
05
.
and shells to shoot it, but, by the will of God, I moved to come downhill at the very moment
06
.
he was about to shoot. Later, when I reached the bottom, I thanked the Creator for this
07
.
result. At 7:00 , the caravan left yesterday's stopping place. I rode the mount
08
.
for two hours but afterwards I preferred to go up in the mule-litter. At 9:00,
09
Ramadi
I met 4 persons on their way to Baghdad and I immediately recognized one of them,
10
.
who is a realtor in Baghdad. I asked him to stop so that I might write a few lines
11
.
to our family in Baghdad and I drew out my portfolio at once and wrote as follows : 'Our dear Family. We are very well. Our pace
12
.
is slow and we are between Falluja and Ramadi . Pray for us and wish us well. Your dutiful Alexander .' I then dispatched the letter
13
.
with him and got in again. The land hereabouts is all dry and not nice at all
14
.
and, on our left, the chain of hills near to which we have been continually traveling, never broke off.
15
.
At 10:00 , we passed, on our right, some 12 widely-scattered tombs.
16
.
Having come this far from Baghdad , here we passed under the telegraph wire for the first time and continued
17
.
to travel in its vicinity for about 3 hours. At 11:00 , we passed a large shrine set into the hill to our left
18
.
It has one room and some Arabs were inside. It is called Imam
19
.
'Sheikh Mas'oudSheikh Mas'oud: Alois Musil mentions "the little sanctuary" of Sheikh Masʿūd located on the bluffs above the ruins of al-Bārūd on the outskirts of ar-Ramādī [ME, 34] '. At last, after making an extensive march, we arrived at 2:00 in the afternoon at
20
.
Ramadi village. We entered it by the North Gate and, a half an hour later, exited
21
.
by the South Gate . We marched between the houses all built
22
.
with mud except for a few built with stone. This village is far more extensive

Page 013


01
.
than Falluja , perhaps five-times larger, with some 600 souls. Coming
02
.
beyond the village, afterwards, we crossed a small river that is 8 cubitscubit: The cubit (dirāʿ) is a measurement of length. In Baghdad, the cubit is equivalent to 75 centimeters. There is a cubit of Aleppo at 68 cm and a cubit of Persia. wide, called al-Aziziyaal-Aziziya: Alexander calls this a river but Musil [ME, 33] calls it a canal. and we set up camp
03
.
the desert side of the riverbank. Today, upon entering Ramadi , all the village people
04
.
came out of their houses to look at us and we became a spectacle to everyone.
05
.
I was in low spirits to such a degree that even my head felt like it would burst from
06
.
pain and no sooner had they pitched our tent than I took tea and slept for some time.
07
.
The weather was cloudy and dusty at sunset with a very high wind blowing. It was an utterly unpleasant evening.
08
.
I did not like our stopping place at all and I went to sleep
09
.
at once after dinner. After sunset, the Qa'imaqam Ḳāʾim-maḳām (qaʾim-maqam, qā’imaḳam): Established during the Ottoman "Tanzimat" (reform, reorgininzation) period in the late 19th century, the ḳāʾim-maḳām was the highest administrative official of a sub-district appointed by the district governor and confirmed by the provincial governor. He handled all administrative and financial affairs of the sub-district, including taxation and policing. here sent us a few officers to guard us
10
.
overnight because this place is dangerous. We decided to travel from
11
.
here tomorrow and go half way to Hīt Hīt: First mentioned in accounts of a visit by the Assyrian king Tukulti Enurta II in 885 BC. At that time it was known as Īd and later as Īs, Iskara, and Ispolis, all of which names are thought to be related to words for "bitumen". The town is mentioned by writers from Herotodus to Talmudic and Arab sources. Musil, in his account of a 1912 visit, describes Hīt as follows: The dark brown buildings of the town of Hīt cover from top to bottom a yellowish cone about thirty meters high. The largest and tallest houses are on the east side, where also stands the old mosque with the leaning minaret. A broad street divides the town on the cone from the khans and warehouses at its southwestern foot. Between the suburb and the gardens of ad-Dawwāra are ovens for melting and refining bitumen. Hīt has about five thousand inhabitants, two-thirds of whom come from the Dlejm [Dulaym] tribe and only about a fifth from the ʿAḳejl [ʿAḳeyl]. The houses are usually two stories high, the streets narrow, crooked and dirty, as they are washed only during the copious winter rains. Above the houses rises the tall minaret. Among the inhabitants are numerous Jewish families who have lived there from time immemorial… The principal occupations of the inhabitants are gathering bitumen and naphtha, quarrying stone, gardening, and building boats (şaḫātīr)… The ground in the vicinity of Hīt consists of yellow limestone, covered with a thick layer of roughly crystallized gypsum, from which issue many springs with salt or somewhat bitter water, the latter smelling of sulfur. From these springs various gasses escape, which form large bubbles. The bitumen flowing to the surface resembles dirty scum. The salt surrounded by rosy-tinged slime settles on the edges of the springs. [ME, 27-28]. , which is a station at some 4 or 5 hours distance.
12
April 20th,
An extremely unpleasant morning with high winds from the west,
13
.
blowing as hard as possible. The sand and dust blinds us and the weather is overcast and troubled. After
14
.
I drank tea, I felt that I had gotten much better
15
.
than yesterday because I took a bowl of nousha flower nousha flower tea: (A. ward an-nūsha): we have been unable to find references to this flower. "Nousha/nūşa" is typhoid fever in Arabic and this is likely a local name or version of a local name for a flower used in an infusion to reduce a fever. tea when I went to bed yesterday evening.
16
.
At 7- , we saw a big caravan that had come from Aleppo bound for
17
.
Baghdad . At the rear of it was one mule-litter with 3 people inside, two boys and a woman with dark skin.
18
.
So, I wished to send a letter of few lines to our family
19
.
via this caravan. I therefore asked our guide to go and find
20
.
out if there was someone that he knew to whom he could give the letter. Returning later, he asked me to prepare the note, and so I sat down
21
.
immediately and wrote the following on a visiting card: Ramadi , Tuesday morning
22
.
the 20th of April. Our dear family. We are all in good health, so be you, God permitting.

Page 014


01
.
We will move on in one hour from here and go to Hīt . Pray for us and wish us well. We kiss you all. Missing
02
.
you. Alexander I put the letter in an envelope and sent it right away addressed to Uncle Antone,
03
.
to be sent on to the Svoboda (Sboyde) house, in Baghdad. When it turned 8:00, we prepared to march
04
.
but Colonel Mockler had gone to the village to take some photographs . It had turned 8- when he returned
05
.
and we therefore left Ramadi at once intending to go halfway to Hīt . So we got the caravan moving
06
.
at 8:.. and then at 9:.. . , we came to a place on our right with some 30 date trees.
07
.
It is called the Orchard of Abu JhayshJhaysh: a tribe of the al-BuÇamel/BuKamil confederation.. From there, we began
08
.
to march among hills and rugged lands and ground that is all covered with stones. The Arabs of these
09
.
places are called ad-D'laimad-Dulaym [Dlaym] is a Sunnī tribe of Iraq made up of both nomadic and sedentary populations inhabiting a large area in the Jazīra along the Euphrates from Fallūja to al-Ḳāʾim. Arabs. We then passed hills on our left, which are called Tash
10
.
At 11:45 we journeyed down the middle of a very narrow valley. It is the first
11
Shariat Abu Rayat
we have passed and it takes about 15 minutes travel time to cross. It is owned by Wais al-Qarrani and called OqobaAlexander writes the name of this "valley" as اعكبه [alif, ayin, kef, he] which we believe refers to the rocky ridge called al-ʿOḳoba that forms one side of this valley [wādī]. In his dialect this name would be pronounced ʿOgoba and he often represents the "g" pronunciation of "qaf" by using a Iraq colloquial "kef" which has the [Persian and Ottoman] variant "gef". [See, Musil, ME, 32 and 158.].
12
.
When we emerged from the valley, we passed the shrine of Imam Wais al-QarraniMusil [ME, 33] mentions "the little shrine of al-Imâm al-Uwîs" who is likely Alexander’s Wais al-Qarrani. on our right. Here an elderly Arab
13
.
followed us around and we gave him some alms that he asked of us for the imam of the shrine. Then we began to march
14
.
amid dry sands but, thanks be to God, the wind died down. It had killed us this morning as we made our way this far.
15
.
At 1x- in the afternoon , we came to the banks of the Euphrates
16
.
River and the place where we will encamp until tomorrow. It is called
17
.
Shariat Abu RayyatShariat Abu Rayyat: [Şarīʿat Abū Rayyāt] Musil [ME, 32] describes this place as "…the farm and khan of Abu Rajjāt, where there are several small ponds filled with water from the Euphrates". A "şarīʿa" is a pond or watering hole or the flat land surrounding a pond.. When we took down the loads and pitched the tents on the riverside, we found the place
18
.
to be extremely nice and pleasant. It resembles the riversides at GeraraGerara: the name of a place in SE Baghdad mostly used by the Christian and foreign residents of Baghdad for camping during springtime in the last decades of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. [To be completed], but is much better and more pleasant
19
.
with the greenery around us and the kroud waterlifts [kard, pl. kurūd/kroud, also "cherd/çerd"]: a kind of waterlift that employs a draft animal going down an inclined path pulling a rope over a pulley. The pulley is on top of an upright pole and the rope is attached to a cow skin or goatskin sack or bucket that draws water from the river and empties it on land. The kard of Mesopotamia resembles the sakya of Egypt in front of us on other bank. The wind became
20
.
very cold too with a stiff breeze blowing. This is the first time that we have made a halt in such a good place.
21
.
But at sunset, many bugs bit us and the gnats too were worse.
22
.
It appears that this night will be
23
.
as cursed as can ever be.

Page 015


01
April 21st
A cold morning with a nice west wind but last night was miserable
02
.
because of the insects and gnats that killed me all night long so that
03
.
I was unable to sleep at all. Thus, I awoke in the morning without any sleep. After we had tea, we prepared ourselves to march.
04
.
And so, when the caravan was ready, I rode the horse
05
.
with the officer and went half an hour ahead of all the others because the pace of the mule-litter is very
06
.
slow. Thus, at 7=,, we left our stopping place at Abu ar-Rayat , heading towards Hīt .
07
.
At 10 , we reached a big valley situated amid mountains that are all of marble and
08
.
we entered it, traveling up and down. This was the first time that I had seen such a place,
09
Hīt
all the ground appeared to be like one piece of clean and shiny marble, which seems polished and slippery.
10
.
At the end, in one full half an hour, we came out of this frightening valley, where it is dangerous for the animals to walk
11
.
and feared by all the muleteers. It is called OqobatOqobat Hit: We believe that Alexander is referring to the same rocky ridge [al-ʿOḳoba] mentioned in the note on 014:11. This would be a section of the ridge near the town of Hīt.
12
.
HitOqobat Hit: We believe that Alexander is referring to the same rocky ridge [al-ʿOḳoba] mentioned in the note on 014:11. This would be a section of the ridge near the town of Hīt.. Starting from here, the hills increased and became higher and we pass between them every five minutes.
13
.
At 11:05 , we crossed a small and shallow river depression with no bridge to cross on. It is
14
.
3 cubits in net width and called al-Mhammedi Riveral-Mhammadi [Mḥammadī]river: In Musil’s map of Northern Arabia [e-f17 in ME], the al-Mhammadi river is shown between Abu Rayyat and Hit entering the Euphrates near the village of al-Mhammadi.. At 11x-, we reached the banks
15
.
of the Euphrates River and we kept following along it for almost a half an hour but always
16
.
amid hills of hard rock and on the stones that we were never rid of starting from Abu Ghraib .
17
.
At 11=, I saw an Arab mounted on a camel accompanied by one officer, hastily passing by
18
.
us. It was the Damascus or the Turkish Post camelTurkish Post camel: TBD that takes eight days to come
19
.
from Damascus to Baghdad, traveling day and night. After a short march, that is at
20
.
12:20, the minaret of Hīt came into view at a distance and we rode towards it. Starting from here,
21
.
the color of some hills changed to black, that is to say, the black of flowing bitumen.
22
.
We also passed some places with stagnant water and they said that it is from the salt spring
23
.
that we will see at Hīt. At last, after we had tired of marching, we came to Hīt

Page 016


01
.
at 1x- in the afternoon. But what a bad smell hangs over the outskirts of the village and
02
.
there is a lot of dirt too! Built on a high mountain, from a distance the village has a nice appearance
03
.
that resembles European scenes, but let it be known that this is from a distance of a half an hour's march.
04
.
However, coming nearer, the village has a dirty look that distresses the heart and its houses cling to the heights
05
.
like forts. While here, we wished to go and see the springs of bitumen and salt. So
06
Springs of
after we had walked among the hills that are dirty and full of bitumen, we came to the spring and I found
07
Bitumen
it to be lovely, leaving one to wonder at the creations of God Almighty. One sees the gushing bitumen
08
and Salt
spouting from the earth and pouring out. Likewise, a bluish water flows
09
.
at the salt spring. It is a sulfur water that hardens when diffused in the air and becomes natural salt.
10
.
This is the primary thing that amazed me. It is such a wonder! We returned immediately afterwards, because we have
11
.
to leave the village to spend the night. So, we mounted again and after three quarters of an hour came to our stopping place.
12
.
An extremely bad smell hangs over and around the village and bitumen here is as abundantabundant as sand: A local expression repetitively used by the writer throughout the text, meaning "in great quantity".
13
.
as sandabundant as sand: A local expression repetitively used by the writer throughout the text, meaning "in great quantity".. They even use it to build the orchard fences
14
.
instead of mud and plaster. Our stopping place for today is nice, facing hills
15
.
and greenery and the village of Hīt with its minaret have come into view at a distance and they make an extremely fine sight.
16
.
But the wind is blowing hard and the dust has blinded us since noon.
17
.
And of all things that happened to us the worst is the Persian (Farsi) antsPersian [Farsi] ants: to be completed that, as abundant as sand, invaded
18
.
our place at sunset and started to bite us like bugs if not worse! We are fearful that they will
19
.
will disturb us at night.
20
April 22nd
A nice and humid morning, and the night was fine and serene .
21
.
I slept very well too and the ants did not get up into our beds , thanks be to God.
22
.
At 7= , we left our stopping place heading towards the next station. After we had

Page 017


01
.
set out, that is at 9= , we passed before a small, extremely nice island on our right,
02
.
with a ruined house and an orchard planted with date trees. The view of it from the bank is quite lovely and they call it
03
.
al-Flaywial-Flaywi: [al-Flaywī, al-Flīwī, al-Eflīwī] Musil describes this as an "islet…which has been converted into a garden" [ME, 26]. here. Today our whole march stretched between hills and rugged places
04
.
with climbs and descents. It is not an easy road and is tiring for the riding animals.
05
al- Baghdadi
At last, at 2- in the afternoon , we came to our stopping place for the day. It is also situated on the Euphrates River
06
.
and called al-Baghdadial-Baghdadi: [al-Baġdādī] Musil describes crossing the small wadi of al-Ḳaṣr, "…near which a gendarmerie station and the khan of [al-Baġdādī] stand on the banks of the Euphrates." [ME, 25].. We are always surrounded by hills and mountains but,
07
.
in the past, the hills have not been as high as they were today and, perhaps,
08
.
the higher we go the higher the hills will be. Here I saw the waterwheel waterwheel: [ an-nāʿūr, an-nāʿūra] Musil describes one of these waterwheels as follows, …a large wooden wheel with longish earthen jugs tied to its rim. The wheel rests very deep in the river on an axis supported by two pillars of stone. It is connected with the bank by a row of set pillars carrying arches, on which a trough is placed. The stream sets the wheel in motion, the water fills the jugs and is poured by them into the trough, from which it flows into the fields. The hoarse squeaking of these wheels is heard day and night. [ME, 17]. . It is used instead of the kroud and is like
09
.
some sort of huge round pot lid with pots made of clay around it. The wheel is turned by the river current
10
.
and empties out onto the land. It is truly a fine device, more useful than the kerd , and
11
.
also quicker in pouring the water. There are many waterwheels along these banks
12
.
and the sound of their turning comes with the wind from afar. Today,
13
.
we passed more flowery lands than before.
14
April 23rd
Nice, clear weather today with a cold and windy morning
15
.
and a cold night too, colder than yesterday. After tea, it turned 7=
16
.
and we loaded our things and rode to the next stopping place. We traveled
17
.
close to the hills and, after a half an hour, entered among big valleys and rugged places
18
Haditha
that are extremely dangerous, especially for the progress of the mule-litter. At 8= , we passed,
19
.
on the other bank to our right, a small orchard with about 100
20
.
or 200 date trees, it is called Ju'anaal-Ju'ana: [al-Jūʿāna = "The Hungry Woman"]. A half an hour later, we passed
21
.
a place called JubbaJubba: Jubba is a settlement located on the island of Ālūs in the Euphrates. Musil notes its palm trees, seen from a distance. and then entered among valleys and after this there were rocky mountains
22
.
on which the animals legs slipped quite easily. Thus, starting from

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01
.
al-Baghdadi until we came to Haditha Haditha: [al-Ḥadīṯa] Musil describes al-Haditha as follows: Al-Ḥadīṯa lies on an island. The houses of its northern half stand close together; in the southern half grow fine palm trees. A bridge leads to the right bank and close to it stand the gendarmerie station and a khan. On the surrounding hillocks are seen many white graves. [ME, 23]. , we continually marched up and down between
02
.
high mountains and valleys and this stage was the most difficult
03
.
to accomplish so far. At last, at 4- in the afternoon , we came to Haditha.
04
.
It is a small village built long ago in the middle of the river, on an island surrounded by water.
05
.
One hour before coming to our halting place, we came in sight of a chain of islands in the river
06
Haditha
all planted with date and mulberry trees. It makes a lovely view from the bank. This stage was the
07
.
farthest we had traveled in a day so far.
08
.
As I went up and down the mountains today, I caught sight of several kinds of birds among
09
.
which were partridges, storks, and the magpie bird which flies like a small crow
10
.
and has wings and tail colored black and white. There were all kinds of
11
.
flowers such as anemones, another resembling a kind of nousha and stock flowers as well. In some of these areas
12
.
are plantings of varieties such as barley and, in their abundance, the plainsplains [as-saḥāb]: We were unable to find a direct reference for the word as-saḥāb with any meaning that makes sense. The usual meaning (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman) of "clouds, cloud" is not tenable here. Our conjecture is that Alexander has confused and conflated s-ḥ-b with s-h-b which in the form sahb, suhūb means "level country, plains", which fits the sense of the passages in which it is used. appear to be a knotted carpet.
13
.
There are a number of other varieties that look and smell nice too . And one variety, with with only leaves
14
.
and no flowers, has a very strong smell similar to that of fragrant mint. Around here they call this kind 'wormwood.'
15
.
Like the camel thorn it is plentiful and the animals enjoy eating it.
16
.
We were very sick of today's march because the terrain and the climbs were extremely wearing and
17
.
at some place we had to get out of the mule-litter. Haditha village is extremely poor
18
.
whereas Ramadi and Hīt are far better off. A large wooden bargelarge wooded barge: the shakhtoor [şaḫtūr, pl. şaḫātīr], a large, flat-bottomed, shallow draft barge that is made of wood and covered with bitumen. It can carry a load of approximately 3 or 4 tons. The shakhtoor is used to transport loads on the Euphrates River, especially between Hit and Mussayeb since deep-draft boats cannot ply the river in this area. Once it reaches its destination, it is then dismantled and sold as it cannot travel up river. Alois Musil [ME, 27] describes building boats as one of the chief occupations of the inhabitants of Hīt and goes on to say, "The material used in making these boats is wood and palm pulp, with pitch for coating both the outsides and insides. A boat sells for six or seven Turkish pounds ($27 or $31.50)". reserved
19
.
for people to cross is available and departs every other hour. The current is very strong here and the waterwheels
20
.
are still growing more numerous, so that one waterwheel has been set up every fifty cubits. We encamped in
21
.
an unpleasant area because all the lands in this area are cultivated and the crops are ripening.
22
.
Truthfully , I am very tired of this exhausting travel because it lacks comfort and
23
.
settling down and we can rest only two or three hours a day.

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01
April 24th
This morning is nice and cold with a west wind blowing and the night
02
.
was serene. After we prepared to march, I mounted the horse and, with the officer
03
.
Abbas , rode on ahead of the caravan at 7- . Our march for the first two hours was along
04
.
the banks of the Euphrates River and afterwards we started to climb up and down
05
.
the mountains. Our march in the mountains lasted for about two hours on a kind of white sand resembling plaster.
06
.
At 11 , I dismounted and sat down at the foot of a mountain near to some water.
07
Fhaymi
I awaited the caravan here and it came a half an hour later.
08
.
I then got into the mule-litter and we traveled on. At 1:10 in the afternoon , we came
09
.
to our next stopping place, which is called al-Fhaymi , a nice riverbank along
10
.
the Euphrates . Beyond it is an outpost where 4 officers are posted just to keep watch on the road.
11
.
But, in the middle of the river and opposite to our tents is a long and narrow island
12
.
with low greenery and a fairly nice view. It lies some 25 cubits away from the riverbank.
13
.
Here, the current of the Euphrates River is slower than at previous places.
14
.
When we arrived at al-Fhaymial-Fhaymi: [al-Fḥaymī] Musil describes the wide wadi of al-Fhaymi and the gendarmerie station by the same name “with two high piles of stone in front of it, which point the way.” These “piles” are surely what Alexander describes as looking like minarets., we caught sight of what looked like 2 low minarets on the high river bluffs;
15
.
these were made by order of Midhat Pasha Midhat Pasha: Aḥmed Şefik Midhat, a noted Ottoman administrator, statesman, and reformer. He served in several high administrative positions including stints as grand-vizier and was active in promoting the broad administrative, educational, and social reforms of the Ottoman Tanzimat (Reforms) Period. Appointed as Governor of Baghdad (the highest position in the province of Iraq) in 1869, Midhat moved energetically to implement a program of reform which included consolidating the trend towards a centralized administration in an area that had been neglected for some time by the Ottomans. As part of this effort, he began to bring local, provincial administration into line with the organization of urban centers, to strengthen local government units, to settle the nomadic tribes, and to establish a regularized system of land tenure. In addition, he reformed the educational system, introduced modern communications systems (telegraph), and initiated building projects intended to modernize Iraq’s infrastructure. His tenure as governor was brief (1869 to 1872) but its influence on the modernization of Iraq was profound. as a landmark to guide travelers.
16
April 25th
A cold morning today, much colder than yesterday. Yesterday, we decided
17
.
to set out early today and so at 7 sharp,
18
.
the caravan was ready and I mounted the horse and rode into the desert.
19
.
An hour later, I rode in the mule-litter, because, as soon as we reach Ana Ana: [ʿĀna] Musil says the following about Ana: …(W)e reached the gardens of the settlement of ʿÂna. Of the vegetables cultivated here, onions and garlic were the most plentiful. As to trees, besides the palms there were pomegranates, figs, mulberries, and, but rarely, olives. We rode at first among the gardens and along the rocky slope, in which are many natural and artificial caverns. Later we followed a narrow lane among the gardens and huts, which look as if they were pasted to the rocks, for the settlement is nothing but a single street almost five kilometers long between a steep cliff on the south and the Euphrates on the north.” He goes on to say that at the time of his visit (1912) the town had “about seven hundred Muslim inhabitants and five hundred Jewish inhabitants” who had a synagogue in the town. The houses in the Jewish quarter are described as being “built in the antique style, forming either a square or an oblong, narrower towards the top and covred by a flat roof enclosed by a low, machicolated wall. Many of them are three stories high but without windows on the ground floor. [ME, 19-20 + fig. 12]. ,
20
Ana
I will ride out to see the village. Today our march went better than those of yesterday and the day
21
.
before and we climbed mountains 3 or 4 times. At 10
22
.
a small orchard called Haniya
23
.
on the other bank to our right. Afterwards, 10- while traveling on the mountain, we saw riders

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01
.
on their way to Baghdad . We therefore approached them and suddenly there was Mothafer Bey, the son of Nasrat PashaNasrat Pasha and Mothafer Bey: [In Ottoman Turkish Nuṣret Paşa and Muẓaffer Bey] TBA,
02
.
with his retinue. He had come from Aleppo for the inheritance of his father who
03
.
had passed away 5 months ago in Baghdad . At 11- , the date trees of Ana
04
.
came into view. Our arrival there was at noon. The village is a pleasant sight and its houses look strange
05
.
because of their doors that are no higher than one cubit and a half and because all the houses
06
Ana
are in a single row. Also, the village has just one street but the view of the village from the river
07
.
is quite lovely because it lies among orchards, trees and date palms that cheer the heart. This is the
08
.
best of all the villages I have seen until now. One hour after reaching
09
.
the near end of it, we came to the center of the village and here we found ourselves a beautiful stopping place situated on the river among trees
10
.
and date palms and facing a waterwheel on the Euphrates . The caravan arrived at 1- in the afternoon
11
.
and we set up camp here. Our halting place is truly very nice and pleasant.
12
.
After our arrival here, I wrote a few letters to Baghdad and dispatched them with the officer to
13
.
the Qa'imaqam to be sent by post. Then, the officer returned and said that the letters would be sent the day after
14
.
tomorrow. When we entered Ana today, all the village people were standing at their
15
.
house doors and out on the street looking at us. Here, I found their childrenTheir children: The Arabic translated as "their children" is another problem. Alexander writes "alif, waw, dal, alif, ha, mim" [awdāhum]. Given that the "hum" is the third person plural possessive [their], we could not find the remaining "awdā" in any sources for either classical or colloquial Arabic. The closest match in this case was one reference in al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ for "awd" with the meaning of "man [rajul]" [http://www.baheth.info]. It seems unlikely that this sense of a rather rare word would have been in Alexander's vocabulary, although he might have been well schooled in classical Arabic [see the note for "dot" on page 8, line 2]. Our best and still very tentative guess in this case was that Alexander misspelled "awlād" the word for "children".
16
??
very dutiful, with smiling and droll faces. At a distance one hour's march prior to our arrival,
17
.
a major with 12 officers came to meet us. They made a formal salute to Colonel
18
.
Mockler because the Wali of BaghdadThe Wali of Baghdad: Information about the Wali Hoossayn Nadhoom is obtained from the book "Damascus during the rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, [1876 – 1908] AD, [1293 - 1325] Hejire" by Marie Dikran Serko, Dr. – published by the Syrian public organization for books [al-Haya' al-Amma al-Sooriya lil-Kitab] - Ministry of Culture, Damascus. had instructed the Qa'imaqam in this place to observe the necessary courtesies.
19
.
Afterwards, when we set up the tents at sunset, the Qa'imaqam Derwish EffendiQa'imaqam Dervish Effedi: TBA came to visit Colonel
20
.
Mockler himself.
21
April 26th
A cold morning with the east wind now still and the night was very cold
22
.
and damp. After tea, we prepared ourselves to ride to the next station. So, at
23
.
7- Western time, I mounted the horse and rode ahead. I kept riding for almost an hour

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01
.
and a quarter always on the only road by on the riverside at Ana.
02
.
Truthfully, I was very tired of riding in the village, because it takes nearly two hours from beginning to end.
03
.
At last, I exited it and I came to a road that lies at the foot of the mountains.
04
.
It was a frightening thing because the mountain here is steep and split in two parts, one of them
05
.
looming over the road. Then, I rode for nearly two hours alongside the river. After this, I came
06
an-Nehiyya
to a high mountain and rode on slippery footing among the rocks. Later, that is at 11 , I got up into
07
.
the mule-litter. Thus, we continued to march, sometimes going among mountains and at other times on even and flat terrain.
08
.
Truthfully, climbing up and down the mountains is very difficult and tiring. At 2
09
.
in the afternoon, we came to a place on the riverbank that is green with tamarisk and thickets. From here,
10
.
the military post of an-Nehiyyaan-Nehiyya: [an-Nehīya] Musil [ME, 18] remarks that an-Nehiyya is the name of a "gendarmerie station ...lying south of the road near a pile of old building material". comes into view. The stifling heat grew worse in this place with the burning sun. The wind
11
.
from the East that had been still since morning hurt us so much here that it became impossible for us to remain in the mule-litter
12
.
and so we rode the animals. At 3- , we came
13
.
to an-Nehiyya, but before we arrived in the village, we caught sight of some tents and riding animals. Upon inquiring,
14
.
we learned that a major was coming from Aleppo on his way to Baghdad with his wife
15
.
and two mule-litters, and that another one, traveling alone, was on his way to Najaf.
16
.
Upon our arrival here, we chose a site that seemed good for our encampment and we dismounted to await the caravan.
17
.
It came two hours later and we pitched the tents. Today's journey stage was thoroughly exhausting
18
.
because of the heat that hurt everyone and our campsite here is not nice like others in the past.
19
.
Our tents are twenty cubits distant from the river because the ground is wet, salty and soft
20
.
and there is nothing here but a military post, like the one at Al-Fhaymi , with a few officers. For
21
.
two days, we have found the Euphrates riverbanks all cultivated with barley
22
.
and wheat and the grass has grown very well this year. But, the owners
23
.
of the crops in this region are always frightened, because, as they tell us,

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.
the Bedouins come and attack them when they harvest the crops and take all they have obtained from their toil.
02
April 27th
A sultry morning with an east wind and some clouds. The night
03
.
was stuffy and hot and since yesterday we were hoping that
04
.
rain would surely come after this stuffiness. But, at 6 in the morning , the wind turned to the west and the day became nice.
05
.
Thus, at 7- , we took off from an-Nehiyya heading to al-Qa'imal-Qa’im: [al-Ḳāʾim, al-Ḳāyim] Alexander spells the name of the town as he pronounces it, with “kef” (representing “g”) in place of “qaf” and “ya” instead of the glottal stop (hamza). Musil says that the gendarmerie station stands on the high ground on the bank of a small wadi. “West of it, down by the highway a khan has been built; to the east stands a heap of ruins, above which project the remains of a tower.” He also notes that al-Qa’im was once a frontier town of the Persians and was known for its watchtower in ancient times. The name (al-Qa'im) refers to a "standing (qa'im) tower".[ME, 14-15]. and we traveled towards the riverside amid camel thorn and tamarisk.
06
.
Afterwards, we would climb mountains and then, descend to the riverside. The riverside is very nice
07
.
because it resembles the margins of Baghdad's deserts, all green with tamarisk
08
al-Qa'im
and other vegetation. While walking by the river here, I flushed some francolins.
09
.
It has been 10 days that I have neither seen nor heard francolins in these regions.
10
.
The Turanian pigeons and sand grouse sand grouse: [qata, ḳaṭā] Musil runs into flocks of sand grouse in the vicinity of Abu Rayyat. He writes, - - On a pool hard by ḳaṭa sand grouse were quenching their thirst. Flying in a long row they dropped down to the surface of the water and drank one after another from the same place without stopping in their flight; then they turned, came back and drank again. Not before they had had their fill did they fly away. There were thousands of them forming a great ellipse. He goes on to say, In the fields…the peasants were beginning their harvest. The wheat was fully ripe but the grain small; moreover the peasants could not keep off the ḳaṭa birds which flew in swarms from field to field destroying the ears of grain. [ME, 32-33]. are abundant here and the farther I go the more flocks of birds I see
11
.
ahead of me and they are very tame. Truthfully, I regretted a great deal that I had not brought fowling pieces with me.
12
.
I would have been able to bag a lot of game in the course of our journey. So, this is the first stopping place
13
.
that I find so pleasant. At 3 in the afternoon , we arrived at the military post of
14
.
al-Qa'im . The military post resembles the one at an-Nehiyya and it came into view an hour's march away.
15
.
On arriving here, we found a nice campsite for us on the river and we unloaded the tents and pitched them.
16
.
Our place is truly nice and it resembles the outskirts of Ctesiphon or the land above
17
.
Gerara . In front of us, on the other bank, the kroud are running. We saw the last of the waterwheels
18
.
four hours before getting here and we saw no more of them, since no one
19
.
here makes their like. After we had settled in, the west wind blew harder and hot. Thanks be to God,
20
.
we are near to ad-Dayr and only 3 stages remain for us to make. A stifling wind at sunset
21
.
and it became hot.
22
April 28th
A cold and serene morning with a nice West wind. But
23
.
it was an extremely accursed night with the wind still until past midnight and the gnats

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01
.
killing me all night long. I did not sleep for a minute nor did I close an eye until morning and I got up
02
.
very much in need of sleep. However, it became lovely at dawn and the morning was, to the utmost, bright and fresh.
03
.
I have not so far seen such a day. After tea,
04
.
I took the horse and rode of with the officer toward the next stopping place. It was then 7:00
05
.
and I intended not to dismount until I reached the station . So on I went,
06
.
sometimes along the riverbank and at other times far away from it amid tamarisk and greenery, with the soul-cheering cry
07
.
of the francolins and an extremely fresh wind blowing. We had never seen such a morning
08
.
since the day we left Baghdad nor had we seen such a nice and serene road. Until 8- ,
09
Abu Kemal
I could still see the military post of al-Qa'im behind us. At 9- , we passed a fairly low-lying land
10
.
where the authority of Baghdad ends and the jurisdiction of the governor of Aleppo begins.
11
.
The borders of Baghdad come only up to here. Also, along this bank of the river and likewise in front of us
12
.
on the other bank, the hills end giving way to the start of a flat, even terrain, green with tamarisk and grass.
13
.
Thus, all our journey for today was on level terrain with nothing but a slight elevation.
14
.
At 11 , we came to new buildings by the riverbank. They are very nicely built
15
.
and we understood that a new village is under construction here to replace Abu KemalAbu Kemal: [Abū Kemāl, Abū Çemāl] Musil writes, “…we saw the new settlement of Abu Çemāl with its rather small mosque and slender minaret and a few larger buildings in the southwestern part. At Abu Çemāl the western upland merges into the cultivated flood plain.” [ME, 12]. The settlement Musil describes must be what Alexander calls “the new village”. village, which is
16
.
our stopping place for today. At 11= ., we arrived at the military post of Abu Kemal . The village is extremely poor
17
.
with nothing but a few mud houses houses, some shops and in 3 or 4 years it will be far better than
18
.
Ramadi ,
19
.
Hīt or Ana because it is constructed after the manner of modern buildings. Today,
20
.
I saw many locusts in the thickets, as abundant as worms. They are all Najdi yellow like the kind
21
.
they eat at Basra . If seen from a distance, one can take them for bits of straw that have been
22
.
strewn about! The caravan and the mule-litter came one hour after I arrived here and we encamped
23
.
on dry ground far from the river. Here, I discovered a caravan that had come from Damascus bound for

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01
.
Baghdad . So I sent with it a letter addressed to our family telling them about our health. The heat became
02
.
stronger at noon and the wind changed bringing clouds. At sunset too, the weather was unfortunate and dry.
03
April 29th
An extremely cold morning, colder than any other day with thick clouds
04
.
and an east wind blowing. The night was cursed with gnats until morning and the wind was still until sunrise.
05
.
Again, I did not sleep all night until morning and am waiting to see
06
.
how this coming night will be. We were up at 5- , drank tea
07
.
and at 7 left Abu-Kamal to go on to our next stopping place. We still marched amid greenery,
08
.
mulberry trees and tamarisk, all high and tall and us among them until it turned
09
as-Salhiyya
10- . Then I got out of the mule-litter and mounted the horse. I rode towards some Arab tents,
10
.
at the side of the road and asked the Arabs for some shininashinina: [şinīna] a beverage made of yoghurt diluted with water..
11
.
A woman then brought me some in a sheepskin. I drank as much as I could and gave her back the rest,
12
.
thanking her. The Arabs are very friendly here and are amiable with strangers
13
.
as well as generous with guests. I returned from the Arabs' tents heading for the military post of as-Salhiyya,
14
.
our stopping place, and arrived there at 1 in the afternoon . Half an hour later,
15
.
the caravan arrived and we encamped on the bank of the Euphrates River in front
16
.
of the military post, here a very old building with few officers. The place where we are today is
17
.
nice but the ground is extremely dusty and sandy. Starting from Abu-Kamal as far as as-Salhiyya,
18
.
we never went up a hill or a mountain nor did we travel on rocky ground. The entire road was very nice,
19
.
amid the shade of the tamarisk and the ground was good and flat. That was the first time that we traveled such a road,
20
.
which did not tire us at all. At 5 before noon, I went with my father towards a high mountain
21
.
nearby, and only half an hour from the encampment. We wanted to see what the thing was that appeared to us, from
22
.
a distance, like an old construction on the mountaintopan old construction on the mountaintop: These are the extensive ruins of Dura Europos, known locally as Dura (fortress). Dura was founded by Seleucid Greeks in about 300 BC and grew to become a major manufacturing center. When it was taken by the Romans in about 160 AD, it became an important military outpost. During the first half of the third century, the city fell to a Persian siege and remained a forgotten ruins until it was finally identified in the 1920s. [See, the website of the archaeologist Simon James at http://www.le.ac.uk/ar/stj/dura/index.htm#late.] Alexander visits the site well before it was definitively identified. In a private communication Prof. James pointed out that Alexander seems to exaggerate the height of the raised plateau on which Dura stand by a factor of ten and calls it "a mountain". The circumfrence of the ruins is also exaggerated.. We came to the foot of the mountain and

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01
.
climbed up. The mountain was high, about 200 meters in height, and when we came to its summit we saw very old ruins
02
.
and ancient constructions that, as some say, could be as old as 1500 years, if not even older. Apparently,
03
.
this place was the outer wall of a city that was built here and the buildings are buried
04
.
in the sand. Fully round in shape, the circumference of all the ruins comes to nearly 50 thousand meters and the construction
05
.
is that of some mighty people. The rocks are very carefully laid one on top of the other with no plaster
06
.
or mud. Here, we ran across Colonel Mockler who had also come up to look at this old city.
07
.
We returned at sunset impressed by this old construction.
08
April 30th
An extremely cold and clear morning with a fresh wind and the night was
09
.
cold too. However, I slept under the mosquito netting fearing the gnats that disturb one a lot and, thanks be to God, I slept
10
.
delightfully till morning. When it turned 7, Colonel Mockler said that he does not intend to make the
11
.
the whole journey stage today and that he will travel only for about 6 hours. He wanted to go once more to the mountain,
12
.
on top of which are the ruins we saw yesterday, in order to tell his wife
13
.
about them. Therefore, they all mounted and so did I and we went directly to the mountain, but not by the usual road
14
.
that goes to the left. The caravan with the mule-litters went on
15
.
to the stopping place. Coming to the foot of the mountain, I climbed up on horseback and we went
16
??
all together around the entire ruins. I saw many more places than yesterday and I went into a
17
.
a place that looks like a military fort, going between arches that are built of small rocks. I noticed, written on one arch,
18
.
names of the tourists who had come here and visited these places.
19
.
Of these I recall two: one is ' V. Duvent 1890 ' and the other ' Frédéric
20
.
Korben 1887 '. I then wrote my name too with the date and we toured the
21
.
whole place. Even the gate of the big wall is a nice thing. At 1 , we left this place going out of
22
.
the gate to catch up with the caravan. We continued to march among rugged places, rocks, and stones
23
.
and then we came down into a big valley looking for the caravan. At last, we were able to catch sight of it

Page 026


01
.
at 1- in the afternoon and so we rode together to the stopping place that is called ash-Showayt . Arriving there,
02
.
we unloaded the baggage and pitched the tents at 2. Across from us is a high cliff. The other bank is
03
.
very far away and the current of the river is not fast here. From al-Ana to here, we have had trouble
04
.
changing dirhems. All the Arabs only take piasterspiaster: [ghrush, ġurūş] this is the Turkish piaster, 1/100 of a Turkish pound (lira). and do not know about
05
.
the majidi or the quarter-majidimajidi or the quarter majidi: TBA. Although they will accept the majidi as worth 72 piasters, it is impossible for anyone
06
.
to buy anything without piasters. The name of the piaster is also unknown to them
07
al-Showayt
as at Ana they call it metlikHere Alexander writes a word that appears to be "menlik" but we cannot find reference to a coin by this name. Accordingly we are assuming that he intends "metlik/metelik", a form of the Ottoman Turkish "metālik" [after the French metallique (metalic)] referring to a very low value coin made of copper sometimes adulterated with other metals., which is worth 3 Baghdadi piasters, whereas from al-Qa'im to here, the metelikHere Alexander writes a word that appears to be "menlik" but we cannot find reference to a coin by this name. Accordingly we are assuming that he intends "metlik/metelik", a form of the Ottoman Turkish "metālik" [after the French metallique (metalic)] referring to a very low value coin made of copper sometimes adulterated with other metals.
08
.
is called ashariashari: TBA and is worth one piaster. In short, it is extremely exasperating
09
.
to buy things here. The four piaster coin is not known as money here but as jewelry for their women to
10
.
hang on the forehead. Starting from an-Nehiyya to here, all the Arab women spoil
11
??
their looks by tattooing their lower lips and they consider it shameful
12
??
if a woman has not done so, but it is truly very ugly and harmful to their looks. The people of these
13
??
places are very poor and strive desperately for money and they are as dirty as could be. Yesterday,
14
.
when we dismounted at as-Salhiyya, several Arab women came to us carrying sheepskins of
15
.
shinina that they sell very cheap, that is to say, for one piaster each or, at most,
16
.
two. From Baghdad to here, eggs are also cheap and we never bought less
17
.
than 8 or 9 for one qamariqamari: [ḳamarī]TBA but vegetables are not available at all and the bread, which is black and thick in these areas, is extremely miserable.

May

June

July

April


Page 001


01
.
جورنال
02
.
رحلت أوربا
03
.
_________________
04
.
عن طريق البر
05
.
على الشام و بيروت
06
.
_________________
07
.
أبتداء في ١٠ نيسان
08
.
١٨٩٧
09
.
اسكندر ازفوبودا

Page 002

السفر من بغداد وا لموادعة

02
١٨٩٧

03
.
___________________________________________________
04
نيسان ١٠
فقد صممنا على السفر الى اوربا و ممشانا من هنا سيكون
05
.
نهار الاربعاء صباحاً اعني في ١٣ من هدا الشهر "thirteenth of the month" Alexander is mistaken about the date, Wednesday is the 14th of the month. ۔ فقد كرينا الدواب
06
.
و تختروان ورتبنا كل شيء و ما بقي سوى ان نضع بغداد ورائنا ۔
07
.
من الايام الثلاثة الفاتت الى الآن جملة خطار عمال يجون يودعونا
08
.
و بالاخص الاهل جملة امرار يجون عندنا ۔ فنسافر صحبة كرنل
09
.
مكلر باليوز الانكليزي الذي معتمد يروح الى لندرة فنأخذ درب
10
.
البر اعني الى الدير ad-Dayr: an abbreviation commonly used by the diarist for the town Dayr-Az-Zawr. و الشام و بيروت و من هناك الى القاهرة اذا
11
نيسان ١١
سهل المولى ۔
12
.
اليوم بما هو نهار الاحد الآخيرلنا في بغداد فبعد ان
13
.
سمعنا القداس بدينا ندور و نتوادع مع الاصدقاء و عملنا
14
.
زيارات لتقريب ٢٠ بيت و عندنا ايضا اتوا جملة اناس
15
.
يتوادعون معنا و يهنونا بسفر هني و الغروب كنا
16
.
مجتمعين في بيت كسبرخان عند عمة اليزة و رجعنا ساعة
17
.
٣ تركيه Turkish time: refers to the Turkish version of the traditional time-keeping called ġurūbī (sunset) time or eẕānī [edhānī] (call-to-prayer) time. According to this practice the "day" began at sunset and was divided into two 12 hour periods, the first ending at sunrise and the second at sunset. The period between sunset and sunrise was divided into twelfths as was the period between sunrise and sunset. This resulted in "hours" that varied in length throughout the year. In the "Turkish time" developed after the spread of mechanical clocks, the day was divided into two periods of 12 hours of equal length beginning at sunset. All clocks were re-set at sunset. "European time" was "mean time" which ran from high noon to high noon with regular hours and had no other connection to hours of light and dark. مع كافه الانشراح ۔ و اليوم الغروب سمعت
18
.
من تيلكراف اتي من البصرة الى بيت النج يخبرون عن
19
.
موتت اسكندر وكيل في البصرة عن وجع الدق الدي به ۔
20
.
البارحة ساعه ١٠ فرنكيه اتى من البصرة قنصل الجديد الانكليزي
21
.
الى بغداد مع امرأته و جاء معه قنصل بصرة ميجر فيكن Fagan: Major Charles George Forbes Fagan, 1856-1943, was born to a military family. He served in the second Afghan War of 1878-1880. When he met Alexander Svoboda he was Assistant Political Agent in Basra. See http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Major_Charles_George_Forbes_Fagan و قنصل
22
.
الجديد لبغداد اسمه كرنل لوك ۔ و بما نحن معتمدين نسافر

Page 003


01
.
مع كرنل مكلر الذي رائح من بغداد الى لندرة ليأخذ التقاعد و كان
02
.
كل هذه المدة منتظر مجي كرنل لوك فالآن تحقق ازود ممشانا
03
.
سيكون نهار الاربعاء۔
04
نيسان ١٢
اليوم صبحت مغيمة و ممطرة مع هوا شرقي كذلك
05
.
غيم تخين و مظلم لكن بعد كم ساعة صفي الجو ۔ بعد الظهر
06
.
رحت الى الاوفيس و طلبت من كرنل مكلر شهادتنامه عن خدمتي
07
.
في القنصلخانه مدة سنتين فوعدني بأن غداً يعطيني اياه۔ الغروب
08
.
عملنا فزيته الاخيرة الى بيت خالي انطون و قالوا لنا بأن جوري ابنهم
09
.
مزمع ان يرسلوه معنا الى بيروت الى المدرسة ۔ و قبل الغروب بساعة
10
.
وديت الهارمونيوم الذي عندي بالبيت الى بيت الخال ليتقيدوا عليه
11
.
بمدة غيابنا ۔ و اليوم ايضا اتوا يودعونا جملة اناس من الاقارب والاصدقاء ۔
12
نيسان ١٣
هده الليلة كانت للغاية متعسة الغيم و الرعد ابد ما انقطع و نصف
13
.
الليل اتت مطرة للغاية قوية حتى عملت الدروب اشطوط لكن
14
.
الصباح كسرة و صحت مع شمس مبهجة للغاية و نهار ربيعي لطيف ۔
15
.
اليوم اتوا ايضاً كثير من الناس ليودعونا لكن لما رحت الى الاوفيس سمعت
16
.
بان كرنل مكلر بدل افكاره عن المشي الاربعاء الى يوم الخميس العصر
17
.
فحقيقة كثير احتصرت من هذه التقلبات و كل يوم جنس
18
.
فبالخير اعتمدنا السفر نهار الخميس بعد الظهر ۔ و الغروب اتو عندنا بيت
19
.
العم هندري TODO: This note will identify Henry. و العمة مدولة و جاني و ارتين و بقوا عندنا لحد ساعه واحده
20
.
و نصف لكن ما توادعوا الوداع الاخير ۔ و بعد الظهر رحت
21
.
توادعت مع كم صديق ۔ و بعده رحت شفت التختروان الذي لازم نسافر به ۔
22
نيسان ١٤
يوم مفرح الى الغاية و الطيانات من الدروب نشفت
23
.
قليلاً و الشمس لامعة من دون غيم ابداً ۔ فبعد ان

Page 004


01
.
زرت بعض من الاهالي و الاصدقاء اتيت للبيت و سمعت
02
.
بأن نية الخال انطون انقلبت و جوري ولده لم يسافر بعد
03
.
معنا لأنه كثير عمال يحتصر عليه فيا حيف على هكذا فرصة التي
04
.
فاتت و لم تصح بيد الخال بعد ۔ اليوم قبل الظهر اتت عندنا
05
.
العمه اميليه و ترجينا منها لتتناول الغداء معنا فقبلت بذلك
06
.
و بعد الفطور اتى عندي الصديق جميل عبد الكريم و جاب له كتاب
07
.
الى ابن دنحه رزوق الذي ساكن في دير الزور فاخدت
08
.
الكتاب ووضعته مع اوراقي الخاصة ۔ و اتت عندنا كترينه
09
.
ياغجي و توادعت معنا و كثير احتصرت على فرقتنا ۔
10
نيسان ١٥
اليوم هو يوم السفر كما افتهمنا البارحة بأن
11
.
اليوم بعد الظهر سنعبر الى داك الصوب ۔ اليوم صبحت
12
.
هوية مغيمة و صباح مزعج للغاية لكن بعد طلوع الشمس
13
.
بساعتين صحت الدنيا و صار نهار مبهج لطيف ۔ فبعد أن
14
.
رحت الى الكنيسة و اخدت الفصح كما اليوم هو خميس
15
.
الفصح و رجعت ساعه -,٨ فرنكيه الى البيت و كنت هناك
16
.
احضر اغراضي و امهر ابواب الدواليب في الكفشكان
17
.
و اتوا عندي بعض من الاصدقاء و توادعت معهم وداع الاخير۔
18
.
فلما صار الظهر كنا ننتظر وصول البغال لأخذ الاغراض
19
.
و لما صارت ساعة واحده بعد الظهر بدوا يأتون عندنا الاهل
20
.
جميعاً ليتوادعوا اخيراً و حقيقة كثير صعبت علي لما بديت
21
.
احكي معهم على الفرقة و هم جميعاً كانوا كثير يحتصرون
22
.
اخيراً بعد ان صارت ساعه -,٢ فرنكيه اتت بغالنا و بدوا
23
.
يحملوا الغرضان فجميع الاهل كانوا يضجون بالبكاء وانا معهم

Page 005


01
.
و ما كنت اظن بان الفرقة هي هكدا زحمه فبعد ان شدوا
02
.
الحمول طلعوا من البيت مع زابطيه الذي كنا مأخذيه بواسطة
03
.
بيورلدي و امرناهم ان يعبروا الى الخر و هناك ينتظرونا لنبات
04
.
تلك الليلة ۔ فلما صار وقت الفراق و الساعة قربت جميع اهلنا
05
.
من عمة اميليا اليزه و مدوله Medula: Alexander’s half-sister, the oldest of the children of his mother Eliza Jebra Marine and Fathulla Sayegh. و اليز بنت عمة اميليا و الويز بنت
06
.
العم هندري و والدتها و تروزه و ريجينه بنات عمه اليزة
07
.
و امرأة الخال انطون مع بناتها روزي و اللن بدوا يبكون بصوت
08
.
على الم الفرقة و انا هده اول مرة من عمري شفت نفسي هكدا
09
.
حزين من الموادعة و الدموع ما كانت تنقطع ولا دقيقة و المحبة
10
.
التي بينة من نحوهم لي كانت للغاية قوية و ما كنت اظن هكدا
11
.
يحبوني اخيراً صارت ساعة ٤ فرنكيه فطلعت الى الكفشكان
12
.
اخر مره و لبست العكال و الجفية و نزلت من كفشكاني
13
.
العزيز اخر مرة و سلمت عليه بقولي Adieu و من يعرف
14
.
متى سأشاهدك مرة الاخره فلما دخلت عند الاهل و لابس
15
.
تكميل حواس الركب ضجوا الجميع بالبكاء فحينذ قام والدي
16
.
و قال لزم نترككم جميعاً فانا مع الوالد و الوالدة بدينا نقبل
17
.
الاهل واحده بعد الأخرة و الدموع هاطلت كالمطر فنزلنا بالحوش
18
.
و هم واقفون بالطارمه يسلمون علينا فدرت عيني و قلت
19
.
اودعكم بالله يا جميع اهلي صلوا و ادعوا لي بالتوفيق و لما
20
.
طلعت من الباب كانوا جميعهم يسلمون علي من الشباك
21
.
فدرت اخر نظري و سلمت عليهم بالكفية اخر مرة و لكن
22
.
العبارات القوية كانت تهطل على خدودي فتوادعت مع
23
.
الاهل و البيت و درت رأسي نحو السوق فبينما كنت
24
.
امشي بالطريق رائحاً الى الجسر bridge: The Baghdad Bridge. In the last decade of the nineteenth century there were two bridges crossing the Tigris, which connected the two parts of Baghdad: Karkh to the west and Ressafa to the east. The Baghdad Bridge, a very old bridge, was at the center of the town. Upstream was the Aʿzamiya Bridge near to the Bab-Al-Muʿazzam formerly known as the Bab Khurasan (the Khurasan Gate), which connected the little town of Kādhimiya [Kāẓimīya] to the district of Mu'azzam. Both bridges were approximately 200 m long. The Baghdad bridge was wider, at about 8 m. They were both pontoon-type bridges consisting of wooden planks laid on barges coated with bitumen and fastened to buoys by means of iron chains. A modern Baghdad Bridge ordered by the then Ottoman governor of Baghdad province, Namık Pasha, was completed in 1902. It was later burnt (1916) by retreating Turkish troops. لقيت الصديق جميل كريكور

Page 006


01
.
فاصحبني و كانوا معي يصحبونا جميل عبد الكريم شكر الله صايغ و يعقوب
02
.
تيسي قرين الشقيقة مدوله فمشينا على الجسر و كما العم هندري
03
.
كان في مركب خليفه Khalifa: The name of one of Lynch (Euphrates and Tigris Shipping Company) steamships. لأن يوم ممشاه كان اليوم فطلع على سطح المركب
04
.
و سلم علينا و نحن كذلك الى ان فتنا و عبرنا الجسر و وصلنا الى علاوي Alawi-el-Hilla: ʿAlawi al-Ḥilla 33° 20' 0" North, 44° 23' 0" East [to be completed]
05
.
الحله فهناك كانوا الدواب حاضرين ليأخدونا الى الخر ۔ فقربت
06
.
ايضاً موادعت الباقي فقبلنا واحد الآخر و درنا رأسنا نحو الخر و بغداد العزيزه
07
.
بقت ورائنا فدرت رأسي نحو الوطن و قلت اودعكِ يا ارض الاحبة
08
.
يا ارض الاعزاز اي وقت ستكون الملاقات فركبنا الدواب و كانت ساعه
09
.
, فرنكيه فوصلنا الى جسر الخر ساعه =,٤ و عبرناه و اتينا قليل و شفنا جميع الكروان
10
الخر
حاضر و جادرنا منصوب و الغرضان حوله’ ايضاً جوادر و غرضان كرنل
11
.
مكلر كانت قد اتت ايضاً جوادر عيسى الزهير الدي سافر معنا
12
.
الى الشام مع ولده الصغير عبد الله ليضعه في المدرسة ۔ فدخلنا في الجادر و استراحينا
13
.
لكن انا كنت كثير محصور على الفرقة لأن هده اول مرة نزلت بي
14
.
فصبرت نفسي و اتكلت على الرب لأن من الاحتصار لا فائدة ۔
15
.
فبعد ان وصلنا عجبني اكتب كم سطر الى عزيزتي لويز و اخبرها على شده احتصاري
16
.
بمفارقتها فطلعت من جنطتي الكاغد و القلم و كتبت كم سطر ۔ فقبل الغروب
17
.
بنصف ساعه رأيت كرنل مكلر اتي مع البايسكل و وراه اتيين مسس
18
.
مكلر و مس تانر مع الخال انطون فبعد ان نزلوا اتى عندنا الخال انطون
19
.
و مسكناه على العشي و النوم فبعد الغروب بكم دقيقة اتى الينا من
20
.
البلد جاني ابن العمة اليزه و حقيقة كثير فرحت لما رأيته أتي من الاهل
21
.
فبقي عندنا هده الليلة و تعشينا جميعاً سويةً و نمنا لكن لم قدرنا
22
.
ابداً لأن كنا ملبوكين و ليس مترهدنين بعد ۔ فجاني نام
23
.
في التختروان و الخال على الزوليه و عليه العبي ۔ و هدا اخر
24
.
يوم نحن قريب بغداد لأن بكره سنقوم ساعه ٨ فرنكيه كما صار القرار مع
25
.
كرنل مكلر و نروح الى اول قوناغ ۔

Page 007


01
.
تركان البلد و السفر من الخر ۔
02
.
______________________________________
03
نيسان ١٦
اليوم قمنا من الفجر و جميعنا سهرانين من هده الليلة الملعونة
04
.
فبعد ان شربنا الجاي سمعنا بان مركب خليفه سيفوت من
05
.
علينا و شفنا دخانه من بعد فحالاً سرعنا نحو الشط و شفنا المركب
06
.
اتي و في الحال رأينا ارتين ابن العمة اليزة ايضاً قد جاء من بغداد
07
.
الينا فلما فات المركب العم هندري كان واقف و يسلم علينا
08
.
و نحن كذلك الى ان غاب النظر ۔ فلما صارت ساعه ٨ فرنكيه
09
.
نزلنا الجوادر و شدوا الحمال و هيئوا الكروان فشالوا تخترواننا
10
.
و لازم الآن نقعد به فوضعوا الدرج من خشب على بابه و طلعت
11
.
الوالدة و كذلك انا و قعدنا به و هده اول مره من عمري و زماني
12
.
قعدت في التختروان فجميع الكروان صار حاضر و تهيئنا على المشي
13
.
و اتكلنا على الله و مشي بنا التخت و الكروان ورائنا يجي و جاني
14
.
و ارتين و الخال ايضاً مصحبينا فبعد مشي نصف ساعه اتى الخال نحونا و وقفنا
15
.
التخت و نزل من على الدابه و اتى يتوادع معنا لأن لازم يرجع للبلد
16
.
سريعاً فبعد ما توادعنا جرت عيونا دموعاً على الفرقة و سقنا البغال
17
.
و الجول هنا جميعه يابس و لازمه مطر فبعد ما فتنا مقدار ساعة -,٢
18
.
كانت بغداد بعد تليء لنا و مناير الكاظم ايضاً تبان من بعد فتوادعت اخيراً
19
.
من بعد مع البلد الى ان غاب نظرنا من كل علامة بغدادية فلما صار ساعه ١١ فرنكيه
20
.
جاني مع ارتين ايضاً توادعوا معنا و هولأ كانوا الاخرين الذي اصحبونا
21
.
الى هنا فعطيت ٣ مكاتيب الى ارتين واحد الى الويز و واحد الى العزيز
22
.
الصديق جاني بهلوان والآخر الى الصديق انطوان جوليتي
23
.
و بينت لهم عظم كدري على فرقتهم فمشينا وحدنا و قطعنا اراضي

Page 008


01
ابو غريب
و اجوال و اوعار و ساعه -,١٢ صرنا قبال عكركوف Agargoaf/Aqar Quf/‘Akarkūf: A prominent landmark located in the desert of Southern Mesopotamia, situated about nine miles to the north west beyond the town of Baghdad near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers. It is known to be the remains of a ziggurat that marks the site of the 14th century (BCE) Kassite city of Dur Kurigalzu. Originally a huge tower of more than fifty meters in height on a 70 X 68 meters base, only the base remains today with the inner mud-brick core rising above it من اليمين
02
.
و فتناه و الى ساعه -,٢ كان يبان لنا اخيراً نغطاء dot: The word translated as "dot" here is a problem word. The Arabic is clearly written as "nun, ghayn, ṭa, alif, hamza [nuġṭāʾ?]" but no such word appears to exist in either literary Arabic or the dialects. The closest match is the form "nun, ghayn, ṭa (nuġuṭ)" found in several standard dictionaries of classical Arabic including the Lisānu’l-ʿArab and al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ [http://www.baheth.info] with the meaning "a tall person". We know that Alexander would have had an excellent education in classical Arabic at the Carmelite School in Baghdad, which boasted such outstanding teachers as the noted philologist Pere Anastas and it is somewhat remotely possible that he might have retained a vague memory of a classical term that he for some unknown reason wrote with the added alif and hamza. Indeed the receding sight of Agargoaf might have resembled a "tall person". However, given the context we have leaned toward the very tentative conclusion that Alexander was rendering his pronunciation of the word "nuḳṭa" in the meaning of "dot". When "nuḳṭa" is used in the sense of a "police post" he spells it correctly but it is possible that when it means "dot" he thinks of it as a different word which he renders phonetically [nuġṭā’]. و لم نزل نراه بعد ۔
03
.
فسقنا الدواب و انا تارة انزل اركب من بدل والدي
04
.
و تارة امشي و ثم اركب في التخت الاراضي للغاية تريد مطر و بعض احيان
05
.
نفوت خييم عرب و جميع عرب هده الاراضي هم الزوبع az-Zobaʿ: One of the three main branches—with the Abda and Aslam—of the Shammar tribal confederation which migrated to Iraq from the northern Najd in the 17th century and became a major power in the Jazīra up to Mosul. Alois Musil says of them, "The Zōbaʿ are descendents of the Ṭajj [Ṭayy] tribe. Their main camping ground lies between al-Mahmūdijje, Abu Ḥunta (Ḥabba), and the highroad from al-Felluǧe to Baghdad." (ME, p. 127.) و بعض
06
.
من الاراضي مزروعه زرع ديم و بين كل ساعتين نفوت قليل
07
.
من بعض اجوال مخضره و تلول ناصية و في ساعه ٢ فتنا ايمام صغير
08
.
عن بعد على اليسره و قريب منه بير ماء و ساعه -,٢ عبرنا من على كنطره
09
.
صغيره و تحتها نهر رفيع يجري من شط الفرات فوقفنا و شربنا منه
10
.
قليل و بعض من الاوادم غسلوا به فبعد نصف ساعه وصلنا على ايمام
11
.
اكبر من الاول و يسموه ايمام ابو ظاهر الحمود 'Imam Abū Dhāher al-H'mud' [İmām Abū Ẓāhir al-Ḥ’mūd]. Here, as is common in Iraq, "imam" (prayer leader) means "shrine" and does not necessarily refer to the title or occupation of the person named. This is probably the tomb of Ḥ’mūd ibn Ṯāmer (Ḳabr Ḥ’mūd), who was chief of the Muntefiḳ tribe early in the 19th century (see ME, p. 127). و صرنا قريبين من اول
12
.
قوناغ اعني ابو غريب فاخيراً وصلنا على ارض حصو و صرنا قبال نقطة تسمى
13
.
عنبار السنيه The "sannīya" lands, refers to lands held personally by the sultan, "crown lands" Here Alexander may be referring to a building that preceded what Musil (ME, p. 126) calls the "Ḫān as-Seniyye" (the Crown Lands Inn) بها كم زابطيه لمحافضة العنبار الذي به طعامات السنيه
14
.
فاستخيرنا هده الارض و وقفنا الكروان و نزلوا الحمول و نصبوا
15
.
الجوادر و كانت ساعه =,٣ فرنكيه و هده الارض ايضاً تسمى
16
.
ابو غريب ۔ كرواننا يحتوي على خمسين دابه و ٣ تختروانات ۔
17
.
فبعد ان نزلنا هنا و ترهدنا اخدت القلم لأكتب ما سبق ۔
18
.
و بعد ان خلصت الكتابة استراحيت قليل بالتمديد و لما صار الغروب
19
.
كنا نسمع من كل الاطراف صوت الطراج الذي حسه كثير لطيف
20
.
و يبان كثير يوجد هنا منه۔ فاغتنمت الفرصة و كتبت كم سطر
21
.
كتاب الى الاهل و خبرتهم عن صحتنا و على احتصاري من مفارقتهم و غير
22
.
شيء و اعتمدت ان ارسله’ مع اولاد النواب الذين ساروا
23
.
معنا الى الفلوجه لأجل القنص بالطير۔ فالغروب تعشينا من وقت
24
.
و نمنا ليلتنا لأننا كنا تعبانين من مشي الكروان ۔

Page 009


01
نيسان ١٧
اليوم قمنا صباحاً و رأينا نهار للغايه بهج مع هواء غربي
02
ابو غريب
بارد و هده الليلة كانت كثير بارده تقريباً تشبه ليالي الشتاء
03
.
و في نصف الليل مطرة قليل لكن الصباح كان لطيف مع صحو ۔ و بينما كنا
04
.
في الجادر اتى تامي دكستر Tommy Dexter: Tom Dexter has a long history in Iraq. Captain R. E. Cheeseman [of the Secretariat of the High Commissioner for ʿIraq] in his 1923 article "A History of Steamboat Navigation on the Upper Tigris" (The Geographical Journal Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan. 1923, 27-34) relates a story that he received "first hand" from Tom Dexter, who at the time of his writing the article (1922) was a dragoman at the British Residency in Baghdad. According to Cheeseman’s account, a steamer named the Comet was built in Bombay to replace a steamer by the same name which had sailed out of Basra since 1852. Tom Dexter was, at the time, a 17 year-old apprentice at the Bombay dockyard. He was assigned to the post of engine-driver on the Comet’s trial voyage. Because he was a member of the foreign community in Baghdad of English and Armenian parentage, he was sent with the ship when it traveled to Baghdad in 1885. Shortly thereafter he served on it during an adventuresome exploratory journey up the Tigris to Mosul. Of the many amusing stories he related to Captain Cheeseman, we will cite just one, which has especial relevance to Alexander Svoboda’s journey in the company of the colorful Dexter. Cheeseman writes On one occasion, seeing a band of mounted Arabs in the distance, Dexter thought a visit on a bicycle might impress them. Mounting his 54 inch bicycle he went out to meet them dressed in his white uniform. The effect was not exactly that desired. The whole cavalcade turned and put their horses into a gallop, and nothing could be seen of the column but flying dust and gravel. Doubtless the unfamiliar outline had been sufficient and the mirage had done the rest. Subsequently a rumor reached the ship that a long thin white Jinn haunted the lands of Waush-haush, that was three times as high as a man and could travel faster than a horse. The bicycle afterwards became famous, and visitors from distant tribes came in from afar to see for themselves this wonder of machinery. (Navigation, 32.) At the time he accompanied the Svobodas and Colonel Mockler on their journey, Tom Dexter would have been 29 years old and may have been working for the Lynch Brothers as was Alexander’s father. It is also possible that the bicycle that accompanied the caravan and amused Alexander, was similar to or the same as Dexter’s famous machine. الذي مع كرنل مكلر و قال بأن كرنل مكلر
05
.
يقول ما يقدر يمشي هدا النهار لأن مسس مكلر ما عندها كيف و لازم
06
.
يكسر هدا النهار هنا ۔ فحقيقة كثير احتصرنا من هده الخبريه لأننا كنا مصممين
07
.
ان نسافر الى الفلوجه في هدا النهار فاختصبنا اخيراً ان نطيع هدا الامر۔
08
.
فانا طلبت من كرنل مكلر ان اركب قليل البايسكل فاخدته و كنت اتعلم
09
.
عليه فتارة اوقع و تارة امشي عليه و هده اول مره من عمري اني مجرب
10
.
نفسي على البايسكل فبقيت اتعلم عليه لمقدار ساعه و شفت نفسي كثير
11
.
خفيف و مقدار ١٠ مراة مشيت وحدي عليه من دون مساعده لكن بعد ان
12
.
نزلت حسيت جميع اعظامي مهشمه و تعبان الى اخر درجة لكن
13
.
اظن مع الوقت اتعلم على ركبه ۔ فاختصبنا ان نقضي هدا النهار هنا ۔ ففي
14
.
ساعه ٩ فرنكيه رحنا جميعاً الى عنبار السنيه الذي مخيمين قباله’ و درنا
15
.
به و هو له سطح كبير و كم عنبار به مونة السنيه ۔ فبعد الفطور زارنا
16
.
شيخ ظاهر الحمود و قعد عندنا بالجادر و هو ابن صاحب الايمام الذي فتناه
17
.
البارحه ساعه ٣ فرنكيه بعد الظهر و يبان هدا الشيخ هو عاقل و حكيم
18
.
و عمره تقريب ٨٠ سنة كما هو قال لنا فقدمناله تمر البصره و أكل منه و طلب
19
.
مننا دواء العيون الى ابنه الذي هو ارمد فعطيناه كم تركه "remedy": The Arabic here gives the letters "t-r-k-h" for which the various possibilities include "something left behind, abandoned, the property of a deceased person". None of these make much sense in context. Our tentative suggestion is that Alexander intends the word "tiryak/tiryaki" which is a "theriaca" (antidote, cure-all, medicinal compound, remedy). He may also be representing the European term "theriaca" in Arabic characters as he has done in other cases. و بعد نصف
20
.
ساعة ركب و رجع الى اهله و راد يشوف كرنل مكلر لكن كان بالصيد و هكدا
21
.
ذهب من دون ان يشوفه ۔ ففي ساعه -,١ بعد الظهر رجع كرنل
22
.
مكلر من الصيد و معه ١٢ ضراجه و كان يقنص مقدار ٥ ساعات فجاء
23
.
خادمه و معه ضراجتين لنا لكن كثير ضعيف لأن الآن في هدا الوقت
24
.
ما يصيدوه من طرف يبيض و كثير لحمه يصير خفيف ۔ فبعد ان

Page 010


01
.
قمة من النوم و كانت ساعه ٣ شربت الجاي و ثم طلعت ادور
02
.
قليل بالجول و الغروب اتى عندنا كرنل مكلر و رجع الى
03
.
جوادره بعد نصف ساعه ۔
04
.
صباح لطيف مبهج مع صحو و برد هده اليلة كانت
05
.
بارده ازود من البارحة ۔ فمثل ما صممنا البارحه بعد شروب
06
.
الشاي اعني ساعه =,٧ فرنكيه تهيأ الكروان للمشي الى قوناغ
07
الفلوجه
الثاني فحضر كل شيء و مشينا و هدا النهار تقليب النفس
08
.
الذي كنت احس به بالتختروان قل من احسن و سرنا بين
09
.
اراضي لطيفه مورده بورد اصفر تقريب الجميع ۔ من ابو اغريب
10
.
جميع الاراضي متروسه بالحصو كبار و صغار و السحاب بلاط عدل
11
.
و من هنا بدت الجوال بالارتفاع قليلاً و ثم تخفيضاً و في ساعه
12
.
٢٥× ٩ فتنا على اليسار تل صغبر و عليه قبر مبني عليه الجص الابيض
13
.
و في ساعه ٢٥×١٢ الظهر وصلنا قرية الفلوجّة و من بعد نصف
14
.
ساعه كانت تبان لنا و هي مبنية على شط الفرات و بها مقدار ٤٠٠ ٠
15
.
الى ٥٠٠ نفس مع قهوات ٣ و خانين و بيت صغير يخص كاظم باشا Kathim Pasha: TBA
16
.
و ازود الاراضي هنا مشتريها كاظم باشا و كيروب اغا فوصلنا على
17
.
جسرها و عبرناه و هو يحوي على ٢٥ سفينة مقيره و ليس عريض
18
.
فهده اول مره من عمري شفت شط الفرات من هكذا اماكن۔
19
.
فلما وصل الكروان كرنل مكلر قال الأحسن نستريح هنا مقدار
20
.
ساعه و نأكل التفن tiffin: Transcribed as "t,f,n" in the Arabic text. A usage popularized in British India with the meaning "lunch" or "a light meal/snack". و ثم نمشي مقدار كم ساعه لأن قوناغ الثالث هو
21
.
بعيد لمقدار ١٠ ام ١٢ ساعه مع التختروانات فرضينا بذلك و بعد ان
22
.
اكلنا شيء جزئي ارتحلنا كذلك من الفلوجه قاصدين نصف درب
23
.
ثالث قوناغ و كانت ساعة ٢٠×١ بعد الظهر ۔ و هنا الاراضي نديه للغايه
24
.
و ازودها اهوار و ليست يابسة مثل اجوال الصباح۔ وفي ساعه ٢

Page 011


01
سن الذبان
فرنكيه فتنا قريب من كم عرق تحتوي على ٢٤ نخله و ٤ عروق
02
.
تين و عرق تكي و يسمون هدا المكان بستان ام العصافير و من
03
.
هنا بدينا كل خمس دقائق نعبر على كنطرات منها عاليه و منها ناصية
04
.
و هنا الاجوال بدت بالخضار و العشب هنا كثير و الاراضي
05
.
تشبه اراضي المعدان Miʿdan/ Maʿdan: the so-called "Marsh-Arabs", who dwelt in the swamps around Basra and in the vicinity of Amara. Led by powerful local sheikhs, they generally remained independent of the Ottoman Government and the Bedouin tribes of Iraq. They raised large herds of water buffalo and sheep and, on occasion, raided shipping traveling up the Euphrates. بجانب البصره ۔ و في ساعه ٥×٣ فتنا
06
.
قبال من اليمين نخل الصكلاوية Saqlawiya: [aṣ-Ṣaḳlawiya] In spelling this name, Alexander, as he often does, replaces the "qaf" (q) with "kef" (k), which represents "gaf" (g) which is the way that "qaf" was often pronounced in his dialect. He would have said "Saglawiya". It is the name of a canal connecting the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Ṣaḳlawiya canal branched from the Euphrates few miles above the village of Falluja upstream carrying its river water to the Tigris, entering the town of Baghdad to the South through the Masʿūdī canal that encircles the Western parts of Baghdad. The canal was closed in 1883 and by the early 19th century its bed was used as farmland. In his account of a 1912 journey along the Euphrates, Alois Musil twice refers to "the settlement of as-Saḳlāwiyye" [ME, pp. 151 and 152]. This is likely the site referred to by Alexander in his journal. و اليسار تلول صغار و من بعد
07
.
يقدر واحد يرأ لمع الصخور مثل فصوص الالماز ۔ اخيراً بعد ١٠
08
.
دقائق وصلنا الى مستقرنا و خيمنا على شط الفرات قبال التلول
09
.
و هدا المكان اسمه سن الدبان لأن هنا يوجد تل الاول
10
.
و هو اول واحد من بغداد الى هنا فبعد ان نصبنا الجوادر كانت
11
.
ساعه ٥ و قريب الغروب ۔ و هنا السحاب plains [as-saḥāb]: We were unable to find a direct reference for the word as-saḥāb with any meaning that makes sense. The usual meaning (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman) of "clouds, cloud" is not tenable here. Our conjecture is that Alexander has confused and conflated s-ḥ-b with s-h-b which in the form sahb, suhūb means "level country, plains", which fits the sense of the passages in which it is used. لطيف ۔
12
.
و اليوم من الصباح صحتي كثير تغيرت و صار معي نشله قوية
13
.
و في الغروب صرت آتعس من النهار و نرأ الى غداً كيف أصير ۔
14
.
فبعد العشاء نمت حالاً ۔ و صار الوعد بأن غداً نروح رأساً الى
15
.
الرمادي Ar-Ramādī: (Also Al-Ramadi and ar-Rumādī), name of a town to the North-West of Baghdad on the Euphrates River. It was founded and built in 1869 by the Ottoman Wali of Baghdad Midḥat Pasha (1869-1872) especially to control the nomadic Dulaim (Dulaym/D'laim) tribes of the region, but it also proved to be an important stopping point along the caravan route between Baghdad and the Levant. Ar-Ramadi is the capital of al-Anbar province in Iraq and most its inhabitants are Sunni Moslems from the Dulaim tribe. Alois Musil’s account of his 1912 journey describes ar-Ramādī as a "wealthy settlement of about fifteen hundred inhabitants" with extensive land holdings. It also had a population of some 150 Jews who had their own synagogue. [ME, 33] ثالث قوناغ ۔
16
.
صباح بارد للغاية مع هواء شرقي قوي و هده
17
.
الليلة قضيتها اتعس الليالي لأن من الغروب اتتني صخونه الى الصباح
18
.
و الليل كان ابرد ما يكون و الى طلع الفجر اني كنت بعداب ۔ و في
19
.
ساعه -, ٧ تهيأ الكروان للمشي و كما يوجد بجانبنا تل سن
20
.
الدبان عجبني كثير ان اروح اطلع عليه فاخدت حالاً الحصان
21
.
و مع الضابطيه رحت و سقت نحو التل فوصلته بعد نصف ساعه
22
.
و ردت اصعد عليه انا و الحصان لكن كان غير قابل فنزلت من على الدابه
23
.
و سلمتها بيد الضابطيه و طلعت عليه و هو تقريباً ٣٠ متراً عالي فحبيت
24
.
اوقف فوق و أتني الكروان فبعد نصف ساعه بين الكروان

Page 012


01
رمادي
و في رأسه كرنل مكلر و التفاكه و بما انا كنت قاعد على القمة غير متحرك
02
.
و لابس هدوم بلون التل و رأسي فقط اسود بعد النزول من
03
.
عليه خبرني كرنل مكلر بأن قدر عظيم فاتني الآن لأنه لما نطرني
04
.
عن بعد توهم رأسي بطير و اخد التفك الرصاص ليضرب الصيده
05
.
و بقدرته تعالى تحركت ونزلت’ في تلك الدقيقة عينها الذي
06
.
كان بها يريد يضرب فبعد نزولي شكرت الباري على هده
07
.
القضية ۔ الكروان مشي من منزل البارحة ساعه =, ٧ و بعد
08
.
ساعتين ركب على الدابه حبيت اركب التختروان و في ساعه -, ٩
09
.
تلاقيت مع ٤ اوادم داهبين الى بغداد فحالاً عرفت واحد منهم و هو
10
.
اسغاء في بغداد فترجيته ان يقف لأكتب كم سطر الى بغداد فحالاً
11
.
طلعت الجزدان و كتبت كذا ( " اهلنا العزيز ۔ كيفنا كثير مليح ممشانا
12
.
تقيل نحن ما بين فلوجه و رمادي ادعوا لنا بالخير الراعي اسكندر " ) و ارسلتها
13
.
معه وركبت ثانيهً و هنا الاراضي جميعها يابسة ليست لطيفة ابداً
14
.
و سلسلة التلول ابداً ما انقطعت و دائماً نحن نمشي قريب منها على
15
.
اليسار و ساعه ١٠ فتنا على اليمين كم قبر مقدار ١٢ لكن متفرقة عن
16
.
بعضها و هنا فتنا اول مره من بغداد الى هنا تحت تيل التلكراف و بقينا
17
.
نمشي حواليه الى مقدار ٣ ساعات و في ساعه ١١ فتنا على اليسار بداخل
18
.
التل ايمام كبير و يوجد به قبة كانوا بها كم عربي و يسمى الايمام
19
.
شيخ مسعود Sheikh Mas'oud: Alois Musil mentions "the little sanctuary" of Sheikh Masʿūd located on the bluffs above the ruins of al-Bārūd on the outskirts of ar-Ramādī [ME, 34] و بعد ممشى كثير وصلنا اخيراً ساعه ٢ بعد الظهر قرية
20
.
الرمادي و دخلنا من باب الشمال و طلعنا بعد نصف ساعه من
21
.
باب الجنوب و مشينا بين البيوت و جميعها مبنية
22
.
من طين فقط يوجد كم بيت من حجار و هده القرية كثير اكبر

Page 013


01
.
من الفلوجه يمكن بخمس مرات و بها مقدار ٦٠٠ نفس فلما وصلنا
02
.
تاليها عبرنا نهر صغير بعرض ٨ ادرع و يسموها العزيزيه و خيمنا على
03
.
جرفها من طرف الجول و في دخولنا الى الرمادي جميع
04
.
اهل القرية طلعت من بيوتها يتفرجون علينا و صرنا فرجة للجميع
05
.
و انا كنت بهكدا درجة منحرف المزاج حتى ان رأسي كان ينشلع من
06
.
الوجع و لما نصبوا خيمتنا حالاً اخدت’ جأي و نمت لمقدار كم وقت
07
.
و هدا الغروب كان الهواء عالي جداً مع غيم و عج و مساء
08
.
مزعج الى آخر درجة و انا قطعياً ما حبيت هدا منزلنا اخر بعد
09
.
العشاء حالاً نمت ۔ و هنا القائمقام رسل لنا ضابطيه بعد الغروب لتحرسنا
10
.
في الليل لأن المكان مخطر ۔ و صممنا بأن غداً نسافر من
11
.
هنا الى نصف درب الهيت اي مقدار ٤ ام خمس ساعات ۔
12
.
اليوم صبحت للغاية مزعجة مع هواء غربي قوي
13
.
مثل ما لازم و الطراب و الطوز عمانا و الجو مغيم مختبط فبعد
14
.
ان شربت الجاي حسيت بأن نفسي صارت كثير أحسن
15
.
من البارح و ذلك من طرف لما نمت امس اخدت منكاسة ورد النوشة
16
.
ففي ساعه -,٧ رأينا كروان كبير جاي من الحلب ورائح الى
17
.
بغداد و في اخره تختروان واحد به ٣ انفوس ولدين و امراة
18
.
لكن سمراء اللون فحبيت ارسل مع هدا الكروان كم سطر
19
.
كتاب الى الاهل فطلبت من عكامنا ان يسأل انكان يوجد
20
.
واحد يعرفه ليسلم له الكتاب فرجع و قال لاحضر الاسطر فحالاً
21
.
قعدت و كتبت على الكارت فيزيت ( رمادي صباح الثلاثا
22
.
نيسان ٢٠ لاهلنا العزاز ۔ جميعنا صحتنا عال انشاءالله انتم

Page 014


01
شريعة ابو رايات
كذلك بعد ساعه نمشي من هنا الى الهيت ادعوا لنا بالخير نقبلكم جميعاً ۔ المشتاق
02
.
لكم اسكندر ) ووضعته في مغلف و ارسلته حالاً مع عنوان الخال انطون
03
.
و ثم لبيت زبويده بغداد ) و لما صارت ساعه ٨ تحضرنا للمشي لكن
04
.
كرنل مكلر دهب الى اللولاية ليأخد كم فوتغراف و لما رجع صارت ساعه -٨
05
.
فحالاً مشينا من الرمادي قاصدين نصف درب هيت فسقنا الكروان
06
.
ساعه -,٨ و ساعه -,٩ وصلنا على اليمين في مكان به كم نخله مقدار ٣٠
07
.
واحده وهدا المكان يسموه بستان ابو اجحيش و من هنا بدينا
08
.
نمشي بين التلول و الاوعار و الارض جميعها حصو و عرب هده
09
.
الاماكن يسموها عرب الدليم و على اليسار فتنا تلول تسمى الطاش
10
.
و ساعه ٤٥×١١ فتنا في وسط وادي طييق كثير و هدا اول وادي
11
.
فتناه و اسمه ( وادي ) اعكبه مال ويس القرَّني و ممشاه مقدار ١٥ دقيقة
12
.
و لما طلعناه فتنا على اليمين ايمام ويس القرَّني و هنا لحقنا عربي
13
.
اختيار يطلب صدقه لصاحب الايمام فعطيناه شيء و الآن بدينا نمشي
14
.
بين رمول يابسه و الهواء الذي قتلنا هذا الصباح في الدرب
15
.
الى هنا قل لله الحمد و في ساعه -,×١ بعد الظهر وصلنا على شاطي
16
.
الفرات مكان الذي نخيم به الى غداً و هدا المكان يسموه شريعة
17
.
ابو رايات و لما نزلنا الحمول و نصبنا الخييم على حافي الشاطي رأيناه
18
.
مكان للغاية لطيف و مبهج و يشبه شواطي كراره لكن كثير الطيف و احسن
19
.
و الخضار دايرنا و الكرود قبالنا في داك الصوب و الهواء صار ايضاً
20
.
كثير بارد و نسيم عال و هده اول مره نزلنا في هكدا مكان هكدا
21
.
حسن ۔ لكن وقت الغروب كثير بق بدي يعض و النكرص
22
.
ايضاً اتعس و على ما يبان أن هده الليله ستكون
23
.
ملعونة مثل ما لازم ۔

Page 015


01
نيسان ٢١
صباح بارد و هو غربي لطيف لكن ليلة التي انقضت
02
.
كانت متعسه لأن الحشرات و النجرص قتلني كل الليل و ما
03
.
قدرت انام قطعيا و هكذا قمت الصباح من دون غفي فبعد
04
.
ان شربنا الجاي تهيئنا للمشي فحضر الكروان و انا ركبت الحصان
05
.
مع الضابطيه و رحت قدام الجميع بنصف ساعه لأن ممشي التخت كثير
06
.
تقيل فتركنا منزلنا اي ابو الرايات ساعه =,٧ متقبلين نحو الهيت
07
هيت
ففي ساعه ١٠ وصلنا على وادي كبير ما بين جبال كلها من صخر المرمر و كان
08
.
دخولنا به بين طلعات و نزلات و هده اول مره شفت هكدا مكان
09
.
جميع الارض كانها وصله واحده مرمر تلمع و نضيفه كانها ممسوحه و تزلق
10
.
بها الرجل اخيراً بعد نصف ساعه تكميل طلعنا من هدا الوادي المخيف
11
.
و المخطر لمشي الدواب و جميع المجاريه يخافون منه و اسمه اعكبة
12
.
هيت و من هنا التلول بدت تعلي و تكثر و كل خمس دقائق نفوت
13
.
ما بينهم و في ساعه ٥×١١ عبرنا اخواضه من دون كنطره نهر صغير بعرض
14
.
ادرع صافي و ليس عميق و يسموه نهر المحمدي و ساعه -,×١١ وصلنا ٣
15
.
على شاطي الفرات و بدينا نمشي حوله لمقدار نصف ساعه لكن دائماً بين
16
.
التلول المصخرجه قويه و الحصو ابداً ما انقطع مننا من ابو اغريب
17
.
و ساعه =,١١ رأيت عربي راكب جمل و زابطيه واحد مارين علينا
18
.
بسرعة و هدا هجين الشام اي البوسطة التركيه التي تجي بثمانية ايام
19
.
من الشام الى بغداد و يمشون ليلاً و نهاراً ۔ و بعد ممشى قليل اي
20
.
ساعه ٢٠×١٢ بينت لنا عن بعد منارت هيت فسقنا نحوها و من
21
.
هنا بعض التلول تغير لونها الى سواد و هدا السواد هو القير السيالي
22
.
و فتنا بعض مكانات بها ماء واقف و قالوا بأن هدا من ينبوع الملح
23
.
الذي سنراه في الهيت اخيراً بعد ان تعبنا من المشي وصلنا

Page 016


01
.
ساعه -×١ بعد الظهر لكن يا لها من رائحة كريهة من ظاهر
02
.
القرية و الوسخ كثير و البلد هي مبنية على جبل عالي و لكن من بعد
03
.
منظرها لطيف كانها مناظر اوربا من بعد نصف ساعه يكون معلوم
04
.
لكن من قرب لها نظر وسخ و يقبض القلب بيوتها معلقه بالفوق
05
.
مثل قلع و هنا حبينا ان نروح ننظر عيون القير و الملح فبعد ان
06
عيون
مشينا بين التلول الوسخه و المتروسه بالقير وصلنا العين و رايتها
07
القير
شي لطيف و يبهت العقل على خلقة الله تعالى و واحد يراء القير السيالي
08
و الملح
يبق من الارض و يطفح الى الخارج و كذلك عين الملح تجري
09
.
ماء ماوي اللون و هو ايضاً ماء الكبريت و بعد ان ينشر بالهواء يجمد و يصير ملح الاعتيادي
10
.
فهدا اول شي حير عقلي على هكدا عجوبة فرجعنا حالاً لأن لازم
11
.
نطلع خارج القرية و نبات الليلة فركبنا ثانيةً و بعد ٣ ارباع ساعه
12
.
وصلنا مكان المنزل ۔ رائحة كريهة الى الغاية في دائر القرية
13
.
و القير هنا موجود مثل التراب حتى يبنون به طوفات البساتين
14
.
من بدل الطين و الجص ۔ منزلنا اليوم لطيف و قباله تلول
15
.
و خضار و قرية الهيت مع منارتها تبان لنا عن بعد و لها منظر غايةً
16
.
لطيف ۔ الهواء قوي و التراب عمانا من الظهر الى الآن ۔
17
.
و الغروب اتعس من كل شيَّ اتانا و هو نمل الفارسي جاء على
18
.
المنزل مثل الرمل و بدي يعض مثل البق و ازود و خائفون منه
19
.
في الليل لئلا يقلقنا ۔
20
.
صباح لطيف و رطب و الليلة كانت سرينه مليحة
21
.
و انا نمت كثير مليح ايضاً و لله الحمد النمل ما طلع على الجاربايات
22
.
فقمنا من منزلنا ساعه =,٧ متوجهين نحو قوناغ الآخر فبعد

Page 017


01
البغدادي
ان مشينا اعني ساعه =,٩ فتنا قبال جزيره صغيره لطيفه الى آخر درجة
02
.
و بها بستان من نخل و حوش خرابه لكن منظرها من الجرف غايةً حلو و يسموها
03
.
هنا الفليوي و هي الى اليمين و كل ممشانا اليوم هو بين تلول و اوعار
04
.
و نزلات و صعدات و درب ليس هين بل متعب للدواب
05
.
اخيراً ساعه -,٢ بعد الظهر وصلنا منزل اليوم و يسموه البغدادي
06
.
و مكاننا ايضاً على نهر الفرات و دائماً تلول و جبال حوالينا لكن
07
.
الايام المضت التلول ما كانت هكدا علاي مثل اليوم و يمكن
08
.
كل ما نصعد التلول ازود تعلي و هنا رأيت الناعور و هو بجنس
09
.
غطى كبير جداً و دائره مثل برابيق من طين و بجريان الماء هدا الناعور
10
.
يندار و يصب بالاراضي من بدل الكرود و هو حقيقة صنعة لطيفة
11
.
و انفع من الجرد و اسرع بصبان الماء وعلى هده الجروف يوجد
12
.
منهم عدد كثير ۔ و حس دورانه يجي من بعد مع الهواء ۔ و اليوم
13
.
فتنا اراضي مورده ازود من اراضي المضت ۔
14
نيسان ٢٣
اليوم صبحت هوية و بارده مع صحو لطيف
15
حَديثة
و هده الليلة كانت بارده و ازود من البارحة و بعد شربان
16
.
الجاي كانت ساعه =,٧ حملنا غراضنا و ركبنا الى منزل الآخرفمشينا
17
.
بجانب التلول و بعد نصف ساعه دخلنا بين وديان كبار و اوعار
18
.
للغاية مخطرة و خصوصاً لمشي التختروان و في ساعه =,٨ فتنا
19
.
على اليمين و على داك الصوب بستان صغيرة فيها نخل مقدار 100
20
.
ام ٢٠٠ و يسمون هده البستان الجوعانة و بعده بنصف ساعه فتنا
21
.
مكان يسموه جبه و ثم دخلنا بين الوديان و ثم الجبال المصخرجه
22
.
التي تزلق عليها رجل الدابه بكل سهوله و نحن لم نزل من

Page 018


01
حَديثة
بغدادي الى ان وصلنا حَديثة نمشي و نصعد و ننزل بين
02
.
الجبال العلاي و الوديانََ و هدا القوناغ هو اصعب من
03
.
جميع الباقيون للمشي اخيراً ساعه -,٤ بعد الظهر وصلنا حديثة
04
.
و هي بلد صغيره مبنية عتيقاً في نصف الشط جزيره محتاطه بالمياه
05
.
و قبل ما نصل الى المنزل بساعه كنا نشوف سلسلة الجزاير في النهر و مزروعه
06
.
الجميع بنخل و توت لكن المنظر كثير لطيف من الجرف ۔ و هدا
07
.
ابعد جميع القوانيغ الذين مشيناهم في يوم واحد ۔ و اليوم بينما
08
.
كنت انزل و اصعد بالجبال شفت جملة انواع من الطيور و من
09
.
بينهم الكبج و اللكلك و طير العقعق الذي يطير مثل غراب صغير
10
.
مع اجناح و ديل ابيض و اسود و طيرانه مثل الغراب و ايضاً جملة اجناس
11
.
ورود مثل الشقائق و اخر مثل جنس النوشه و الشبوي و في بعض الاراضي
12
.
مزروع من هده الاجناس مثل الشعير و السحاب صاير مثل زوليه من كثرتهم
13
.
و ايضاً جملة اجناس اخر لطيف المنظر و الرائحة و يوجد جنس الذي لا ورد به
14
.
فقط الورق له رائحة للغاية دكية مثل رائحة النعناع العطر و يسمون
15
.
هدا الجنس هنا الشيح و متروس منه مثل العاكول و الدواب تأكله بلذة ۔
16
.
كثير اضجرنا من ممشانا اليوم لأن الاراضي و الصعود كانوا للغاية متعبه و في
17
.
بعض الاماكن لازم ننزل من التخت ۔ قرية حديثة هي للغاية فقيرة
18
.
و رمادي و هيت كثير احسن منها و لما الناس يعبرون يوجد شختور
19
.
خصوصي للعبر بين كل ساعه و جريان الماء كثير قوي هنا و النواعير
20
.
لم تزل تتكاثر حتى بين كل خمسين دراع يوجد واحد ۔ خيمنا في
21
.
ارض ليست لطيفة لأن هنا جميع الاراضي مزروعه و مسنبلة ۔
22
.
اني حقيقة كثير اضجرت من هدا السفر المتعب لأن لا به راحه و لا
23
.
قعود فقط باليوم نقدر نستريح ساعتين ام ثلاثة ۔

Page 019


01
نيسان ٢٤
اليوم صبحت بارده لطيفه مع هوا غربي و الليلة
02
فـحيمي
كانت سرينة فبعد ان تهينا للمشي ركبت الحصان ساعه -,٧ مع الضابطية
03
.
عباس و سقت قدام الكروان فمشانا كان لساعتين الاولين على
04
.
جرف الفرات و بعده بدينا نصعد الجبال و ننزلها و هنا ممشانا
05
.
بالجبال كان على جنس تراب ابيض مثل جنس الجص لمقدار ساعتين
06
.
ففي ساعه ١١ نزلت من على الحصان و قعدت بصد جبل و بجانبه
07
.
ماء و انتظرت هنا الكروان فبعد نصف ساعه وصل
08
.
فدخلت في التخت و مشينا و في ساعه ١٠×١ بعد الظهر وصلنا
09
.
منزلنا الآخر الذي يسموه الفحيمي و هو جرف لطيف على
10
.
الفرات و فوقه يوجد قلعه فيها ٤ ضابطيه لمحافضة الطريق
11
.
فقط و لكن في نصف الشط قدام خيامنا يوجد جزره طويله و رفيعه
12
.
بها زور و منظرها ليس عاطل و تبعد على الجرف بمقدار ٢٥ دراع
13
.
و هنا الفرات جريانه بأقل سرعه من مكانات الفاتت ۔
14
.
و في وصولنا الى الفحَيمي رأينا على جرف العالي مثل منارات نصاي
15
.
عملها متحد باشا Midhat Pasha: Aḥmed Şefik Midhat, a noted Ottoman administrator, statesman, and reformer. He served in several high administrative positions including stints as grand-vizier and was active in promoting the broad administrative, educational, and social reforms of the Ottoman Tanzimat (Reforms) Period. Appointed as Governor of Baghdad (the highest position in the province of Iraq) in 1869, Midhat moved energetically to implement a program of reform which included consolidating the trend towards a centralized administration in an area that had been neglected for some time by the Ottomans. As part of this effort, he began to bring local, provincial administration into line with the organization of urban centers, to strengthen local government units, to settle the nomadic tribes, and to establish a regularized system of land tenure. In addition, he reformed the educational system, introduced modern communications systems (telegraph), and initiated building projects intended to modernize Iraq’s infrastructure. His tenure as governor was brief (1869 to 1872) but its influence on the modernization of Iraq was profound. لأجل المسافرين كدليل لهم للسفر ٢ ۔
16
نيسان ٢٥
اليوم صباح بارد ازود من البارحة اعتمدنا
17
عانة
البارحة ان ممشانا اليوم يكون من وقت ففي ساعه ٧ تكميل
18
.
حضر الكروان فركبت الحصان و سقت في الجول
19
.
و بعد ساعه قعدت في التختروان حتى بأول وصولنا الى عانة
20
.
اركب لاتفرج عليها فممشانا اليوم كان احسن من البارحة و اول
21
.
البارحة وصعدنا ٣ ام ٤ مرات على الجبال و ثم ساعه ١٠ فتنا
22
.
على اليمين بستان صغيرة في داك الصوب و اسمها
23
.
حنية و في ساعه -,١٠ بينما كنا نمشي على الجبل رأينا ركاب

Page 020


01
عانة
مارين الى بغداد فاقتربنا منهم و اذا مظفر بيك ابن نصرت باشا
02
.
مع اتباعه آتى من حلب على ورث والده نصرت باشا الذي
03
.
توفي قبل ٥ اشهر في بغداد و في ساعه -,١١ بين لنا نخل العانة
04
.
و كان وصولنا اليها الظهر و هي لطيفة المنظر و مضحكة البيوت
05
.
لأن باب البيت لا يعلو ازود من دراع و نصف و جميع البيوت
06
.
هي على قطر واحد و بها طريق واحد ايضاً و لكن منظرها على الشط
07
.
كثير لطيف لانها بين بساتين و اشجار و نخل القلب ينفتح بها وهده
08
.
احسن من كل قرية شفتها الى الآن و بعد ساعه من وصولنا الى
09
.
اولها وصلنا نصفها و لقينا لنا هنا مكان حلو على الشط بين النخل
10
.
و الاشجار قدام ناعور على نهر الفرات و في ساعه -,١ بعد الظهر
11
.
وصل الكروان و خيمنا هنا و مكاننا حقيقة كثير لطيف و مبهج و هنا
12
.
بعد وصولنا كتبت كم كتاب الى بغداد و ارسلتهم مع الضابطية الى
13
.
القائمقام ليرسلهم بالبوسطة فرجع الضابطيه و قال المكاتيب ستروح بعد
14
.
غداً ۔ و لما دخلنا اليوم في عانة جميع اهل البلد كانوا واقفون في
15
.
باب البيوت و في الزقاق ينظرون علينا و هنا رأيت اوداهم Their children: The Arabic translated as "their children" is another problem. Alexander writes "alif, waw, dal, alif, ha, mim" [awdāhum]. Given that the "hum" is the third person plural possessive [their], we could not find the remaining "awdā" in any sources for either classical or colloquial Arabic. The closest match in this case was one reference in al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ for "awd" with the meaning of "man [rajul]" [http://www.baheth.info]. It seems unlikely that this sense of a rather rare word would have been in Alexander's vocabulary, although he might have been well schooled in classical Arabic [see the note for "dot" on page 8, line 2]. Our best and still very tentative guess in this case was that Alexander misspelled "awlād" the word for "children".
16
.
للغاية طايعون و وجهم مضحك مبسم ۔ و قبل وصولنا الى هنا
17
.
ببعد ساعه تلقونا ١٢ ضابطيه مع بامباشي و وقفوا بالسلام الى كرنل
18
.
مكلر لأن والي بغداد مخبر القائمقام هنا ليعملون الاحترام اللازم
19
.
و بعده الغروب لما نصبنا الخييم القائمقام درويش افندي داته اتى عند كرنل
20
نيسان ٢٢
مكلر يعمل له زيارة ۔
21
نيسان ٢٦
صباح بارد مع هواء شرقي واقف و الليلة كانت كثير
22
.
بارده رطبه فبعد شرب الجاي تهيأنا للسوق الى ثاني قوناغ فركبت
23
.
الحصان و رحت قدام و كانت ساعه -,٧ فرنكيه فبقيت مقدار ساعه

Page 021


01
النهية
و ربع و انا دائماً امشي على شاطي النهر في العانة و في درب الوحيد
02
.
حقيقة كثير اضجرت من المشي في المدينة لأن من اولها الى اخرها
03
.
تأخد تقريب ساعتين اخيراً طلعت منها و جيت على طريق تحت الجبال و شي
04
.
مخيف لأن الجبل هنا واقف عدل و مفروق فرقتين الواحده منها
05
.
مايله على الطريق فسقت نحو ساعتين على طرف النهر و ثم جيت على
06
.
جبل عالي بين الصخور و زلق و بعده اعني ساعه ١١ ركبت في
07
.
التخت و لم نزل بعض امرار نمشي بين الجبال و تارة على اراضي مصطحة
08
.
عدلة و حقيقة طلعان الجبال و النزول كثير صعب و متعب و في ساعه ٢
09
.
بعد الظهر طحنا على شاطي النهر و مكان مخضر بالطرفه و دغل و من هنا
10
.
تبان قلعة النهية فهنا اشتد الحر القوي و الشمس المحرقة و الهواء
11
.
الدي كان شرقي و واقف من الصباح كثير آدانا هنا حتى ان قعودنا
12
.
بالتخت كان غير ممكن فسقنا الدواب و في ساعه -٣ وصلنا
13
.
النهية و قبل وصولنا اليها بانت لنا خييم و دواب و عند السوال
14
.
افتهمنا بأن بيمباشي الى بغداد مع حرمه اتي من حلب الى بغداد
15
.
مع تختروانات اثنين و ايضاً بيمباشي آخر وحده الى النجف
16
.
فلما وصلنا هنا استخيرنا ارض لخيمنا و نزلنا ننتظر الكروان
17
.
فبعد ساعتين اتوا و نصبنا الجوادر و قوناغ اليوم كان مهلك
18
.
لأن الحر آدى الجميع ۔ و مكاننا هنا ليس لطيف كالسابقين
19
.
خيامنا تبعد عن الشط بعشرون دراع لأن الارض صبخة و هشة
20
.
و ما يوجد هنا غير قلعة مثل التي في الفحَيمي و بها كم ضابطيه ۔ و من
21
.
قبل يومين جميع شواطي الفرات نراها مزروعه بالشعير
22
.
و الحنطة و العشب كثير مليح آتي هده السنة لكن صاحبين
23
.
الزرع في هده الديار دائماً خايفين لأن على قولهم لما يحصدون

Page 022


01
.
الزرع يأتوهم البدو و يهجمون عليهم و يأخدون جميع ما حصلوا من تعبهم ۔
02
نيسان ٢٧
صباح وخم مع هواء شرقي و غيم قليل هده الليلة
03
الكَايم
كانت وخمة مع حرورة و كنا متأملين من البارحة ان هدا الوخام
04
.
لا بد ما بعده يجي المطر لكن ساعه ٦ انقلب الهواء غربي و صار نهار
05
.
لطيف فقمنا من النهية ساعه -٧ قاصدين الكايم و مشينا بين عاكول و طرفه
06
.
نحو النهر و ثم نشط الى الجبال و ننزل الى الشط و هنا حافية النهر كثير
07
.
لطيفة لانها تشبه اطراف اجوال بغداد و مخضره بالطرفه و غير
08
.
شيء و هنا بينما كنت امشي على حافي النهر طيرت كم ضراجة
09
.
و صار لي ١٠ ايام ما سمعت ام رأيت ضراج في هده الاماكن
10
.
و طيور الاطوراني هنا كثيرة هي و الكطة كل ما امشي اشوف ارفوف
11
.
قدامي و كثير امينين و حقيقة كثير تندمت كيف ما جبت معي
12
.
تفك كنت كثير اقدر اقتل صيد في هدا سفرنا ۔ فهدا اول منزل
13
.
شفته هكدا لطيف و في ساعه ٣ بعد الظهر وصلنا نقطة
14
.
الكايم و من بعد ساعه كانت تبان القلعة التي تشبه قلعة النهية ۔
15
.
و جينا هنا و لقينا لنا ارض لطيفه على الشط فنزلنا الخييم و نصبناها
16
.
و مكاننا حقيقة لطيف و يشبه اطراف سلمان پنك او فوق
17
.
كراره و قدامنا في داك الصوب الكرود تشتغل لأن قبل وصولنا
18
.
الى هنا باربع ساعات انقطعت النواعير و ما بقي نشوفها و ما احد
19
.
يعمل مثلها هنا ۔ فبعد قعودنا اشتد هواء الغربي مع حرورة و لله الحمد
20
.
صرنا قريبين الى الدير و بعد لنا ٣ قوانيغ فقط ۔ الغروب الهواء
21
.
وخم و صارت حارة ۔
22
نيسان ٢٨
صباح بارد و سرين مع هواء غربي لطيف لكن
23
.
الليلة كانت الى الغاية ملعونة و الهواء كان واقف الى بعد نصف الليل و النكرص

Page 023


01
ابو كمال
قتلني طول الليل و الى الصباح ما نمت و لا دقيقة و لا غمضت عيني و قمت
02
.
و انا كثير نعسان النوم لكن عند الفجر طاب الوقت و صار صباح مشمس
03
.
الى اخر درجة و بعد ما شفت هكدا نهار ابد فبعد ما شربت الجاي
04
.
اخدت الحصان و الزابطيه و سقت الى منزل المقبل و كانت ساعه
05
.
و نويت ما انزل من الحصان الى ان اصل القوناغ فهكدا مشيت ٧
06
.
تارت على الشط و تارت ابعد عنه بين الطرفه و الخضار و حس
07
.
الضراج يفتح الخاطر و هوا بهج الى الغاية و ما شفنا هكدا صباح ابداً
08
.
من يوم طلوعنا من بغداد و ما شفنا هكدا طريق لطيف سرين و الى ساعه
09
.
-,انا لم ازل اشوف نقطة الكايم ورأنا و في ساعه -٩ فتنا ارض ٨
10
.
منخفضة قليلاً و هنا يخلص حكم بغداد و تبدي متصرفية الحلب و حدود
11
.
بغداد تجي الى هنا فقط و قبالنا في داك الصوب ايضاً التلول تنتهي و تبدي
12
.
ارض عدلة مخضرة بالطرفه و العشب و كدلك على هدا الصوب الشط
13
.
فممشانا اليوم كله كان على ارض مستويه و ليس بها ادنى طلوع غير القليل ۔
14
.
ففي ساعه ١١ جينا على عمارات جديدة على الشط و مبنية كثير لطيف
15
.
و أفتهمنا بأن قرية جديده عمال يعملون هنا عوض عن قرية ابو كمال لتي هي
16
.
قوناغنا اليوم و في ساعه =,١١ وصلنا نقطة ابو كمال و هي قرية فقيرة للغاية
17
.
و ما بها غير كم بيت من طين و كم دكان و بها تقريباً ٣٥٠ نفس لكن ابو كمال
18
.
الجديدة تعادل الف من هده و ستصير بعد ٣ ام ٤ سنين كثير احسن من رمادي
19
.
هيت ام عانة لانها عمال تبنى على جنس عمارات الجديده ۔ اليوم
20
.
كثير شفت جراد بالازوار مثل الدود و جميعه اصفر نجدي مثل الدي
21
.
يأكلوه في البصره و لما واحد يراه عن بعد يطن بانه شلفان تبن
22
.
منتوره ۔ فبعد وصولي الى هنا بساعه اتى التخت و الكروان و خيمنا
23
.
على ارض يابسه و تبعد عن الشط و هنا لقيت كروان اتي من الشام الى

Page 024


01
.
بغداد و ارسلت معه كتاب الى الاهل و خبرتهم عن صحتنا ۔ الظهر اشتد
02
.
الحر و الهواء تغير مع غيم ۔ و الغروب ايضاً كانت منحوسة و يابسة ۔
03
نيسان ٢٩
صباح بارد للغاية و ازود من كل يوم مع غيم تخين
04
صلاحية
و هو شرقي و ليلة كانت ملعونة مع نجرص الى الصباح و وقوف الهواء
05
.
و لم زال الى شروق الشمس و انا ايضاً هده الليلة لم نمت الى الصباح و منتظر
06
.
كيف ستكون ليلة اليوم ۔ ففي ساعه -,٥ قمنا و شربنا الجاي و في ساعه ٧
07
.
تركنا ابو كمال الى منزلنا الآخر و لم زلنا نمشي بين الخضار
08
.
و عروق التوت و الطرفه الجميع عالي و نحن بينه الى ان صارت
09
.
ساعه -,١٠ فنزلت من التخت و ركبت الحصان و سقت نحو خييم
10
.
عرب درب منطرف عن الطريق و طلبت من العرب شنينه
11
.
فجابت لي حرمة في شجوه قليل منه فشربت ما طقت و عطيتها الباقي
12
.
مع تشكري لها و هنا العرب كثير مأنسين و لهم لطافة مع الغريب
13
.
و يكرمون الظيف فرجعت من خييم العرب قاصداً الى نقطة الصالحية
14
.
اي منزلنا فوصلت هنا ساعه ١ بعد الظهر و بعد نصف
15
.
ساعه اتى الكروان و خييمنا على شاطي الفرات قبال
16
.
النقطة التي هنا و بها كم ضابطيه لكن كثير عتيقه ۔ مكاننا اليوم هو
17
.
لطيف لكن الارض غايةً مطربة و رملية و من ابو كمال الى الصالحية
18
.
ما طلعنا ابد على تل و لا على جبل و لا على صخر كل الطريق كان للغاية لطيف
19
.
بين فَيْ الطرفه و الارض عدلة مليحة و اول مره مشينا هكدا درب
20
.
ليس متعب قط ۔ و في ساعه ٥ قبل الظهر دهبت مع الوالد نحو جبل عالي
21
.
بصفنا و يبعد عن الخييم مقدار نصف ساعه لنرى شي الذي يبان لنا من
22
.
بعد كبنيان عتيق على قمت الجبل فلما وصلنا قدام الجبل طلعنا عليه و كان

Page 025


01
.
جبل عالي مقدار ٢٠٠ متر و لما صرنا على سطحه شفنا اثارات قديمة
02
.
للغاية و بنيان عتيق و على ما يقولون عتق ١٥٠٠ سنه و ازود و على ما يبان بأن
03
.
هدا المكان كان سور لبلد كانت معمرة هنا و العمارات هي مدفونه
04
.
بالتراب و مدورة للغاية و دورة الخرايب جميعاً تجي مقدار ٥٠ الف متر و البنيان
05
.
هو بناية جبابره و الصخر مصفط بكل اعتناء واحدة فوق الاخره و بدون جص
06
.
ام طين و هنا لقينا كرنل مكلر ايضاً صاعد ليتفرج على هذه البلد القديمة ۔
07
.
فالغروب رجعنا متعجبين من هدا البنيان القديم ۔
08
نيسان ٣٠
صباح بارد للغاية مع صحو و هواء نقي و الليلة كانت
09
.
بارده لكن انا نمت بالكله خوفاً من النجرص الدي يقلق للغاية و لله الحمد نمت
10
.
هنياً للصباح فلما صارت ساعه ٧ قال كرنل مكلر بأن هدا اليوم ما يمشي كل
11
.
القوناغ و يمشي فقط لمقدار ٦ ساعات و اراد يروح ثانيةً الى جبل
12
.
الذي عليه الخرابات التي شفناهم البارحه ليروي لامرأته
13
.
ذلك فركبوا جميعاً و كدلك انا و دهبنا راساً الى الجبل و ليس على طريق
14
.
الاعتيادي الذي يفوت على اليسار فالكروان و التخوت راحوا
15
.
الى المنزل ۔ فنحن وصلنا الى الجبل و انا صعدته على الحصان و درنا
16
.
جميعاً بكل الخرائب و شفت انا جملة اماكن ازود من البارحة و دخلت
17
.
في مكان مثل قلعة عسكر و بين طوق من صخر ناعم و شفت على طاق
18
.
مكتوب اسماء السايحين الذين وصلوا الى هنا و شافوا هده الاماكن
19
.
Frédéric سنة 1890 و الاخر V. Duvent فمنهم حفضت اثنين الواحد
20
.
سنة 1887 فأنا ايضاً كتبت اسمي مع التاريخ و درنا جميع Korben
21
.
الاماكن و حتى باب السور الكبير شيء لطيف و في ساعه ۔١ طلعنا منها من
22
.
الباب لنلحق الكروان فبقينا نمشي بين صخور و اوعار و حجار
23
.
و نزلنا وادي كبير و نحن ندور الكروان اخيراً ساعه -, ١ بعد الظهر

Page 026


01
الشويط
قدرنا نشوفه فسقنا جميعاً الى المنزل و يسموه الشويط فجيناه
02
.
و هنا نزلنا الحمول و نصبنا الجوادر ساعه ٢ و قدامنا جرف عميق و داك الصوب
03
.
كثير بعيد و النهر جريانه ليس بخفة۔ فمن العانه الى هنا كثير تعدبنا
04
.
بتصريف الدراهم و جميع العربان ما يأخدون غير الغرش و ما يعرفون
05
.
المجيدي ام ارابعه و المجيدي يحسبوه في ٧٢ غرش لكن ما احد يقدر
06
.
يشتري شي انكان ما عنده ابو غرش و ايضاً اسم الغرش ما يعرفوه ففي
07
.
عانه يسموه متليك اعني ٣ غروش بغداد لكن من الكايم و الى هنا المنليك
08
.
اعني قرش و العشاري ( يسموه ) اعني غرش ايضاً و الحاصل تعديب للغاية في
09
.
المشترى هنا ۔ و ابو اربع غروش هنا ما يعرفوه بدراهم بل بحلا الى نسوانهم
10
.
ليعلقوه في جبهتهم ۔ و من النهية الى هنا جميع نساء العرب يخربون
11
.
صورتهم بدقان الشفت السفلى و التي شفتها السفلى ليس مدقوقه
12
.
فهدا عيب عندهم لكن حقيقة بشع كثير و يعدمون خلقتهم و اهل هده
13
.
الاماكن كثير فقراء و مايتون على الدراهم و وسخين مثل ما لازم و لما نزلنا
14
.
البارحة في الصالحية اتوا الينا جملة نساء عرب و شايلون شجوات
15
.
الشنينه و يبيعوه هدا كثير رخيص اعني كل شجوه في غرش ام الازود
16
.
غرشين و البيض ايضاً من بغداد الى هنا رخيص و ابد ما اشترينا اقل ۔
17
.
من ٨ ام ٩ في قمري لكن مخضر ابد ما يوجد و الخبز للغاية تعيس
18
.
في هده الدير و اسود و تخين ۔

May

June

July

Notes
  1. "thirteenth of the month" Alexander is mistaken about the date, Wednesday is the 14th of the month.
  2. Mule litter, 'taḫterewān': From the Persian "taḫt-e revān" (taḫt meaning seat or throne, revān meaning moving). It was commonly used in Iraq, sometimes in the abbreviated form taḫt . In the English diary of the return journal, Alexander used the term teḫtersin, for which we have been unable to find any references.
  3. The word 'Balioz' was originally the Turkish form of the title of the 'Baglio', the Venetian Representative to the Ottoman court. In later years the word 'Balioz' became a vulgar term for any foreign consul. The British Consulate or Residency in Baghdad was commonly known among the inhabitants there as ‘the house of the Balioz'. Here the term refers to the British Consul-General.
  4. Colonel Edward Mockler: The British Consul General in Baghdad from 1892 to 1897, when he was replaced by Colonel William Loch and journeyed overland to Cairo with Alexander Richard Svoboda and his parents. Born in 1839, he served in several positions in the British Army in India and the Middle East. He was also a scholar and linguist. For more information see (http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Edward_Mockler) the Edward Mockler page in the Svobodapedia.
  5. ad-Dayr: an abbreviation commonly used by the diarist for the town Dayr-Az-Zawr.
  6. Sophie Elizabeth Svoboda
  7. Kasperkhan: The husband of Sophie Elizabeth Svoboda, who is referred to by Alexander as "Aunt Eliza."
  8. Turkish time: refers to the Turkish version of the traditional time-keeping called ġurūbī (sunset) time or eẕānī [edhānī] (call-to-prayer) time. According to this practice the "day" began at sunset and was divided into two 12 hour periods, the first ending at sunrise and the second at sunset. The period between sunset and sunrise was divided into twelfths as was the period between sunrise and sunset. This resulted in "hours" that varied in length throughout the year. In the "Turkish time" developed after the spread of mechanical clocks, the day was divided into two periods of 12 hours of equal length beginning at sunset. All clocks were re-set at sunset. "European time" was "mean time" which ran from high noon to high noon with regular hours and had no other connection to hours of light and dark.
  9. تيلكراف [tīlkrāf]: telegraph, also as tīl [trk. tel ="wire"]. The word tel is the common Turkish word for ‘wire' and is used to mean "a telegram" (as in English). In Iraq it was used to colloquially to mean "the telegraph". See also (http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Telegraph&action=edit&redlink=1) Telegraph in the Svobodapedia reference.
  10. The House of Lynch: The Lynch Brothers Trading Company, a shipping and trade conglomerate operating mainly in the Middle East, founded the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company in 1861. It operated two 100 ton steamers between Basra and Baghdad along the River Tigris because the Euphrates River was thought to be unsuited to navigation by deep-draft vessels. These steamers transported a mix of passengers, wool, dates, rice, and other cargo. http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Lynch_Brothers_Trading_Company
  11. Western [al-la-franga] time: see (note xml:id="N002-17") "Turkish time".
  12. Colonel William Loch (1846-1901) received his commission in 1866 and served in several political offices in India and the Middle East. He replaced Colonel Edward Mockler as Consul-General in Baghdad in 1897. http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=William_Loch
  13. Fagan: Major Charles George Forbes Fagan, 1856-1943, was born to a military family. He served in the second Afghan War of 1878-1880. When he met Alexander Svoboda he was Assistant Political Agent in Basra. See http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Major_Charles_George_Forbes_Fagan
  14. [al-ḳonṣolḫāne] Consulate: Here the diarist refers to the British Consulate in Baghdad, which was established under Mamluk rule in 1802 and staffed by a British Consul-General who also acted as a political agent to the Government of India and ranked second to the British Ambassador in Istanbul.
  15. TODO: This note will identify Henry.
  16. Kefeshkan: From the Persian kefsh-ken "a place for removing shoes" (kefsh =shoe, ken, from kenden=to dig up, peel off). As used in Iraq it referred to a small elevated chamber in old Baghdad houses used mostly for storage. It was usually reached by the stair leading to the roof or by a wooden ladder. Joseph Svoboda’s diaries also indicate that it was used for sleeping during hot weather.
  17. In 1897, the Khirr Bridge was inaugurated in the presence of provincial governor Ata Pasha, as well as Field Marshal Rajab Pasha and high state officials, both military and civilian. The bridge was called the Hamidi Bridge, but people continued to call it the Khirr Bridge.
  18. Medula: Alexander’s half-sister, the oldest of the children of his mother Eliza Jebra Marine and Fathulla Sayegh.
  19. iqal and kaffiyeh: the headscarf (kaffiyeh) worn by Middle Eastern males, which is fastened to the head by a corded loop (iqal, iḳāl).
  20. bridge: The Baghdad Bridge. In the last decade of the nineteenth century there were two bridges crossing the Tigris, which connected the two parts of Baghdad: Karkh to the west and Ressafa to the east. The Baghdad Bridge, a very old bridge, was at the center of the town. Upstream was the Aʿzamiya Bridge near to the Bab-Al-Muʿazzam formerly known as the Bab Khurasan (the Khurasan Gate), which connected the little town of Kādhimiya [Kāẓimīya] to the district of Mu'azzam. Both bridges were approximately 200 m long. The Baghdad bridge was wider, at about 8 m. They were both pontoon-type bridges consisting of wooden planks laid on barges coated with bitumen and fastened to buoys by means of iron chains. A modern Baghdad Bridge ordered by the then Ottoman governor of Baghdad province, Namık Pasha, was completed in 1902. It was later burnt (1916) by retreating Turkish troops.
  21. Khalifa: The name of one of Lynch (Euphrates and Tigris Shipping Company) steamships.
  22. Alawi-el-Hilla: ʿAlawi al-Ḥilla 33° 20' 0" North, 44° 23' 0" East [to be completed]
  23. Tanner: 'Miss Tanner'. We have no references for her. She was most likely an employee of the British Residency.
  24. minarets: These are the minarets of al-Kadhim/al-Kadhimiya [al-Kāẓim/al-Kāẓimīya] (also Persian: Mashhad-e Kāzimiya), a Shi’ite religious shrine in Baghdad with two gilded domes. Originally the burial place of the Imam Mūsā ibn Jaʿafar al-Kāẓim, the seventh imam of the Twelver Shi’a, who died in 799. Since then the shrine became a pilgrimage site for the Shi'ite community and a town grew round the graveyard, known as the Kādhimiya. In 835, the ninth imam, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī at-Tāḳī al-Jawād was also buried by the side of his grandfather. Hence the name Kāẓimayn (Kadhimayn), referring to the two Kāẓims (the enduring ones). A noted school of theology was founded in this town and it is still a source of learning. The present shrine dates back to the 16th century. The gold tiles for the two cupolas were provided by the Iranian Sha Agha Muhammad Khan in 1796. It is said that al-Manṣūr, the second Abbasid Caliph (754-775) ordered the construction of a graveyard here, on the west side of the Tigris, adjacent to his famous round city of Baghdad. His eldest son Jaʿfar al-Akbār was the first to be buried here in 767. The graveyard was also known as the Quraysh (Ḳurayş) cemetery and the western part of the mosque was known as the Sahn Quraysh (Ṣaḥn Ḳurayş—the Court of the Quraysh). Up until the early 20th century, the main language of the Kāẓimayn was Persian.
  25. Agargoaf/Aqar Quf/‘Akarkūf: A prominent landmark located in the desert of Southern Mesopotamia, situated about nine miles to the north west beyond the town of Baghdad near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers. It is known to be the remains of a ziggurat that marks the site of the 14th century (BCE) Kassite city of Dur Kurigalzu. Originally a huge tower of more than fifty meters in height on a 70 X 68 meters base, only the base remains today with the inner mud-brick core rising above it
  26. dot: The word translated as "dot" here is a problem word. The Arabic is clearly written as "nun, ghayn, ṭa, alif, hamza [nuġṭāʾ?]" but no such word appears to exist in either literary Arabic or the dialects. The closest match is the form "nun, ghayn, ṭa (nuġuṭ)" found in several standard dictionaries of classical Arabic including the Lisānu’l-ʿArab and al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ [http://www.baheth.info] with the meaning "a tall person". We know that Alexander would have had an excellent education in classical Arabic at the Carmelite School in Baghdad, which boasted such outstanding teachers as the noted philologist Pere Anastas and it is somewhat remotely possible that he might have retained a vague memory of a classical term that he for some unknown reason wrote with the added alif and hamza. Indeed the receding sight of Agargoaf might have resembled a "tall person". However, given the context we have leaned toward the very tentative conclusion that Alexander was rendering his pronunciation of the word "nuḳṭa" in the meaning of "dot". When "nuḳṭa" is used in the sense of a "police post" he spells it correctly but it is possible that when it means "dot" he thinks of it as a different word which he renders phonetically [nuġṭā’].
  27. az-Zobaʿ: One of the three main branches—with the Abda and Aslam—of the Shammar tribal confederation which migrated to Iraq from the northern Najd in the 17th century and became a major power in the Jazīra up to Mosul. Alois Musil says of them, "The Zōbaʿ are descendents of the Ṭajj [Ṭayy] tribe. Their main camping ground lies between al-Mahmūdijje, Abu Ḥunta (Ḥabba), and the highroad from al-Felluǧe to Baghdad." (ME, p. 127.)
  28. 'Imam Abū Dhāher al-H'mud' [İmām Abū Ẓāhir al-Ḥ’mūd]. Here, as is common in Iraq, "imam" (prayer leader) means "shrine" and does not necessarily refer to the title or occupation of the person named. This is probably the tomb of Ḥ’mūd ibn Ṯāmer (Ḳabr Ḥ’mūd), who was chief of the Muntefiḳ tribe early in the 19th century (see ME, p. 127).
  29. Abu Gh'rayb, to be completed.
  30. The "sannīya" lands, refers to lands held personally by the sultan, "crown lands" Here Alexander may be referring to a building that preceded what Musil (ME, p. 126) calls the "Ḫān as-Seniyye" (the Crown Lands Inn)
  31. - -
  32. Tommy Dexter: Tom Dexter has a long history in Iraq. Captain R. E. Cheeseman [of the Secretariat of the High Commissioner for ʿIraq] in his 1923 article "A History of Steamboat Navigation on the Upper Tigris" (The Geographical Journal Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan. 1923, 27-34) relates a story that he received "first hand" from Tom Dexter, who at the time of his writing the article (1922) was a dragoman at the British Residency in Baghdad. According to Cheeseman’s account, a steamer named the Comet was built in Bombay to replace a steamer by the same name which had sailed out of Basra since 1852. Tom Dexter was, at the time, a 17 year-old apprentice at the Bombay dockyard. He was assigned to the post of engine-driver on the Comet’s trial voyage. Because he was a member of the foreign community in Baghdad of English and Armenian parentage, he was sent with the ship when it traveled to Baghdad in 1885. Shortly thereafter he served on it during an adventuresome exploratory journey up the Tigris to Mosul. Of the many amusing stories he related to Captain Cheeseman, we will cite just one, which has especial relevance to Alexander Svoboda’s journey in the company of the colorful Dexter. Cheeseman writes On one occasion, seeing a band of mounted Arabs in the distance, Dexter thought a visit on a bicycle might impress them. Mounting his 54 inch bicycle he went out to meet them dressed in his white uniform. The effect was not exactly that desired. The whole cavalcade turned and put their horses into a gallop, and nothing could be seen of the column but flying dust and gravel. Doubtless the unfamiliar outline had been sufficient and the mirage had done the rest. Subsequently a rumor reached the ship that a long thin white Jinn haunted the lands of Waush-haush, that was three times as high as a man and could travel faster than a horse. The bicycle afterwards became famous, and visitors from distant tribes came in from afar to see for themselves this wonder of machinery. (Navigation, 32.) At the time he accompanied the Svobodas and Colonel Mockler on their journey, Tom Dexter would have been 29 years old and may have been working for the Lynch Brothers as was Alexander’s father. It is also possible that the bicycle that accompanied the caravan and amused Alexander, was similar to or the same as Dexter’s famous machine.
  33. "remedy": The Arabic here gives the letters "t-r-k-h" for which the various possibilities include "something left behind, abandoned, the property of a deceased person". None of these make much sense in context. Our tentative suggestion is that Alexander intends the word "tiryak/tiryaki" which is a "theriaca" (antidote, cure-all, medicinal compound, remedy). He may also be representing the European term "theriaca" in Arabic characters as he has done in other cases.
  34. Kathim Pasha: TBA
  35. Kerop Agha: Originally Persian but is used by the Ottomans both as a title of respect and as the title for certain military ranks, as well as for high ranking eunuchs, and for high ranking servants in noble households.
  36. tiffin: Transcribed as "t,f,n" in the Arabic text. A usage popularized in British India with the meaning "lunch" or "a light meal/snack".
  37. Miʿdan/ Maʿdan: the so-called "Marsh-Arabs", who dwelt in the swamps around Basra and in the vicinity of Amara. Led by powerful local sheikhs, they generally remained independent of the Ottoman Government and the Bedouin tribes of Iraq. They raised large herds of water buffalo and sheep and, on occasion, raided shipping traveling up the Euphrates.
  38. Saqlawiya: [aṣ-Ṣaḳlawiya] In spelling this name, Alexander, as he often does, replaces the "qaf" (q) with "kef" (k), which represents "gaf" (g) which is the way that "qaf" was often pronounced in his dialect. He would have said "Saglawiya". It is the name of a canal connecting the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Ṣaḳlawiya canal branched from the Euphrates few miles above the village of Falluja upstream carrying its river water to the Tigris, entering the town of Baghdad to the South through the Masʿūdī canal that encircles the Western parts of Baghdad. The canal was closed in 1883 and by the early 19th century its bed was used as farmland. In his account of a 1912 journey along the Euphrates, Alois Musil twice refers to "the settlement of as-Saḳlāwiyye" [ME, pp. 151 and 152]. This is likely the site referred to by Alexander in his journal.
  39. plains [as-saḥāb]: We were unable to find a direct reference for the word as-saḥāb with any meaning that makes sense. The usual meaning (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman) of "clouds, cloud" is not tenable here. Our conjecture is that Alexander has confused and conflated s-ḥ-b with s-h-b which in the form sahb, suhūb means "level country, plains", which fits the sense of the passages in which it is used.
  40. Ar-Ramādī: (Also Al-Ramadi and ar-Rumādī), name of a town to the North-West of Baghdad on the Euphrates River. It was founded and built in 1869 by the Ottoman Wali of Baghdad Midḥat Pasha (1869-1872) especially to control the nomadic Dulaim (Dulaym/D'laim) tribes of the region, but it also proved to be an important stopping point along the caravan route between Baghdad and the Levant. Ar-Ramadi is the capital of al-Anbar province in Iraq and most its inhabitants are Sunni Moslems from the Dulaim tribe. Alois Musil’s account of his 1912 journey describes ar-Ramādī as a "wealthy settlement of about fifteen hundred inhabitants" with extensive land holdings. It also had a population of some 150 Jews who had their own synagogue. [ME, 33]
  41. Sheikh Mas'oud: Alois Musil mentions "the little sanctuary" of Sheikh Masʿūd located on the bluffs above the ruins of al-Bārūd on the outskirts of ar-Ramādī [ME, 34]
  42. cubit: The cubit (dirāʿ) is a measurement of length. In Baghdad, the cubit is equivalent to 75 centimeters. There is a cubit of Aleppo at 68 cm and a cubit of Persia.
  43. al-Aziziya: Alexander calls this a river but Musil [ME, 33] calls it a canal.
  44. Jhaysh: a tribe of the al-BuÇamel/BuKamil confederation.
  45. Ḳāʾim-maḳām (qaʾim-maqam, qā’imaḳam): Established during the Ottoman "Tanzimat" (reform, reorgininzation) period in the late 19th century, the ḳāʾim-maḳām was the highest administrative official of a sub-district appointed by the district governor and confirmed by the provincial governor. He handled all administrative and financial affairs of the sub-district, including taxation and policing.
  46. - - -
  47. Hīt: First mentioned in accounts of a visit by the Assyrian king Tukulti Enurta II in 885 BC. At that time it was known as Īd and later as Īs, Iskara, and Ispolis, all of which names are thought to be related to words for "bitumen". The town is mentioned by writers from Herotodus to Talmudic and Arab sources. Musil, in his account of a 1912 visit, describes Hīt as follows: The dark brown buildings of the town of Hīt cover from top to bottom a yellowish cone about thirty meters high. The largest and tallest houses are on the east side, where also stands the old mosque with the leaning minaret. A broad street divides the town on the cone from the khans and warehouses at its southwestern foot. Between the suburb and the gardens of ad-Dawwāra are ovens for melting and refining bitumen. Hīt has about five thousand inhabitants, two-thirds of whom come from the Dlejm [Dulaym] tribe and only about a fifth from the ʿAḳejl [ʿAḳeyl]. The houses are usually two stories high, the streets narrow, crooked and dirty, as they are washed only during the copious winter rains. Above the houses rises the tall minaret. Among the inhabitants are numerous Jewish families who have lived there from time immemorial… The principal occupations of the inhabitants are gathering bitumen and naphtha, quarrying stone, gardening, and building boats (şaḫātīr)… The ground in the vicinity of Hīt consists of yellow limestone, covered with a thick layer of roughly crystallized gypsum, from which issue many springs with salt or somewhat bitter water, the latter smelling of sulfur. From these springs various gasses escape, which form large bubbles. The bitumen flowing to the surface resembles dirty scum. The salt surrounded by rosy-tinged slime settles on the edges of the springs. [ME, 27-28].
  48. nousha flower tea: (A. ward an-nūsha): we have been unable to find references to this flower. "Nousha/nūşa" is typhoid fever in Arabic and this is likely a local name or version of a local name for a flower used in an infusion to reduce a fever.
  49. ad-Dulaym [Dlaym] is a Sunnī tribe of Iraq made up of both nomadic and sedentary populations inhabiting a large area in the Jazīra along the Euphrates from Fallūja to al-Ḳāʾim.
  50. Alexander writes the name of this "valley" as اعكبه [alif, ayin, kef, he] which we believe refers to the rocky ridge called al-ʿOḳoba that forms one side of this valley [wādī]. In his dialect this name would be pronounced ʿOgoba and he often represents the "g" pronunciation of "qaf" by using a Iraq colloquial "kef" which has the [Persian and Ottoman] variant "gef". [See, Musil, ME, 32 and 158.]
  51. Musil [ME, 33] mentions "the little shrine of al-Imâm al-Uwîs" who is likely Alexander’s Wais al-Qarrani.
  52. Shariat Abu Rayyat: [Şarīʿat Abū Rayyāt] Musil [ME, 32] describes this place as "…the farm and khan of Abu Rajjāt, where there are several small ponds filled with water from the Euphrates". A "şarīʿa" is a pond or watering hole or the flat land surrounding a pond.
  53. Gerara: the name of a place in SE Baghdad mostly used by the Christian and foreign residents of Baghdad for camping during springtime in the last decades of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. [To be completed]
  54. - -
  55. waterlifts [kard, pl. kurūd/kroud, also "cherd/çerd"]: a kind of waterlift that employs a draft animal going down an inclined path pulling a rope over a pulley. The pulley is on top of an upright pole and the rope is attached to a cow skin or goatskin sack or bucket that draws water from the river and empties it on land. The kard of Mesopotamia resembles the sakya of Egypt
  56. Oqobat Hit: We believe that Alexander is referring to the same rocky ridge [al-ʿOḳoba] mentioned in the note on 014:11. This would be a section of the ridge near the town of Hīt.
  57. al-Mhammadi [Mḥammadī]river: In Musil’s map of Northern Arabia [e-f17 in ME], the al-Mhammadi river is shown between Abu Rayyat and Hit entering the Euphrates near the village of al-Mhammadi.
  58. Turkish Post camel: TBD
  59. abundant as sand: A local expression repetitively used by the writer throughout the text, meaning "in great quantity".
  60. Persian [Farsi] ants: to be completed
  61. al-Flaywi: [al-Flaywī, al-Flīwī, al-Eflīwī] Musil describes this as an "islet…which has been converted into a garden" [ME, 26].
  62. al-Baghdadi: [al-Baġdādī] Musil describes crossing the small wadi of al-Ḳaṣr, "…near which a gendarmerie station and the khan of [al-Baġdādī] stand on the banks of the Euphrates." [ME, 25].
  63. - -
  64. waterwheel: [ an-nāʿūr, an-nāʿūra] Musil describes one of these waterwheels as follows, …a large wooden wheel with longish earthen jugs tied to its rim. The wheel rests very deep in the river on an axis supported by two pillars of stone. It is connected with the bank by a row of set pillars carrying arches, on which a trough is placed. The stream sets the wheel in motion, the water fills the jugs and is poured by them into the trough, from which it flows into the fields. The hoarse squeaking of these wheels is heard day and night. [ME, 17].
  65. al-Ju'ana: [al-Jūʿāna = "The Hungry Woman"]
  66. Jubba: Jubba is a settlement located on the island of Ālūs in the Euphrates. Musil notes its palm trees, seen from a distance.
  67. - -
  68. Haditha: [al-Ḥadīṯa] Musil describes al-Haditha as follows: Al-Ḥadīṯa lies on an island. The houses of its northern half stand close together; in the southern half grow fine palm trees. A bridge leads to the right bank and close to it stand the gendarmerie station and a khan. On the surrounding hillocks are seen many white graves. [ME, 23].
  69. large wooded barge: the shakhtoor [şaḫtūr, pl. şaḫātīr], a large, flat-bottomed, shallow draft barge that is made of wood and covered with bitumen. It can carry a load of approximately 3 or 4 tons. The shakhtoor is used to transport loads on the Euphrates River, especially between Hit and Mussayeb since deep-draft boats cannot ply the river in this area. Once it reaches its destination, it is then dismantled and sold as it cannot travel up river. Alois Musil [ME, 27] describes building boats as one of the chief occupations of the inhabitants of Hīt and goes on to say, "The material used in making these boats is wood and palm pulp, with pitch for coating both the outsides and insides. A boat sells for six or seven Turkish pounds ($27 or $31.50)".
  70. al-Fhaymi: [al-Fḥaymī] Musil describes the wide wadi of al-Fhaymi and the gendarmerie station by the same name “with two high piles of stone in front of it, which point the way.” These “piles” are surely what Alexander describes as looking like minarets.
  71. Midhat Pasha: Aḥmed Şefik Midhat, a noted Ottoman administrator, statesman, and reformer. He served in several high administrative positions including stints as grand-vizier and was active in promoting the broad administrative, educational, and social reforms of the Ottoman Tanzimat (Reforms) Period. Appointed as Governor of Baghdad (the highest position in the province of Iraq) in 1869, Midhat moved energetically to implement a program of reform which included consolidating the trend towards a centralized administration in an area that had been neglected for some time by the Ottomans. As part of this effort, he began to bring local, provincial administration into line with the organization of urban centers, to strengthen local government units, to settle the nomadic tribes, and to establish a regularized system of land tenure. In addition, he reformed the educational system, introduced modern communications systems (telegraph), and initiated building projects intended to modernize Iraq’s infrastructure. His tenure as governor was brief (1869 to 1872) but its influence on the modernization of Iraq was profound.
  72. - -
  73. Ana: [ʿĀna] Musil says the following about Ana: …(W)e reached the gardens of the settlement of ʿÂna. Of the vegetables cultivated here, onions and garlic were the most plentiful. As to trees, besides the palms there were pomegranates, figs, mulberries, and, but rarely, olives. We rode at first among the gardens and along the rocky slope, in which are many natural and artificial caverns. Later we followed a narrow lane among the gardens and huts, which look as if they were pasted to the rocks, for the settlement is nothing but a single street almost five kilometers long between a steep cliff on the south and the Euphrates on the north.” He goes on to say that at the time of his visit (1912) the town had “about seven hundred Muslim inhabitants and five hundred Jewish inhabitants” who had a synagogue in the town. The houses in the Jewish quarter are described as being “built in the antique style, forming either a square or an oblong, narrower towards the top and covred by a flat roof enclosed by a low, machicolated wall. Many of them are three stories high but without windows on the ground floor. [ME, 19-20 + fig. 12].
  74. Nasrat Pasha and Mothafer Bey: [In Ottoman Turkish Nuṣret Paşa and Muẓaffer Bey] TBA
  75. Their children: The Arabic translated as "their children" is another problem. Alexander writes "alif, waw, dal, alif, ha, mim" [awdāhum]. Given that the "hum" is the third person plural possessive [their], we could not find the remaining "awdā" in any sources for either classical or colloquial Arabic. The closest match in this case was one reference in al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ for "awd" with the meaning of "man [rajul]" [http://www.baheth.info]. It seems unlikely that this sense of a rather rare word would have been in Alexander's vocabulary, although he might have been well schooled in classical Arabic [see the note for "dot" on page 8, line 2]. Our best and still very tentative guess in this case was that Alexander misspelled "awlād" the word for "children".
  76. The Wali of Baghdad: Information about the Wali Hoossayn Nadhoom is obtained from the book "Damascus during the rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, [1876 – 1908] AD, [1293 - 1325] Hejire" by Marie Dikran Serko, Dr. – published by the Syrian public organization for books [al-Haya' al-Amma al-Sooriya lil-Kitab] - Ministry of Culture, Damascus.
  77. Qa'imaqam Dervish Effedi: TBA
  78. an-Nehiyya: [an-Nehīya] Musil [ME, 18] remarks that an-Nehiyya is the name of a "gendarmerie station ...lying south of the road near a pile of old building material".
  79. al-Qa’im: [al-Ḳāʾim, al-Ḳāyim] Alexander spells the name of the town as he pronounces it, with “kef” (representing “g”) in place of “qaf” and “ya” instead of the glottal stop (hamza). Musil says that the gendarmerie station stands on the high ground on the bank of a small wadi. “West of it, down by the highway a khan has been built; to the east stands a heap of ruins, above which project the remains of a tower.” He also notes that al-Qa’im was once a frontier town of the Persians and was known for its watchtower in ancient times. The name (al-Qa'im) refers to a "standing (qa'im) tower".[ME, 14-15].
  80. - -
  81. sand grouse: [qata, ḳaṭā] Musil runs into flocks of sand grouse in the vicinity of Abu Rayyat. He writes, - - On a pool hard by ḳaṭa sand grouse were quenching their thirst. Flying in a long row they dropped down to the surface of the water and drank one after another from the same place without stopping in their flight; then they turned, came back and drank again. Not before they had had their fill did they fly away. There were thousands of them forming a great ellipse. He goes on to say, In the fields…the peasants were beginning their harvest. The wheat was fully ripe but the grain small; moreover the peasants could not keep off the ḳaṭa birds which flew in swarms from field to field destroying the ears of grain. [ME, 32-33].
  82. Abu Kemal: [Abū Kemāl, Abū Çemāl] Musil writes, “…we saw the new settlement of Abu Çemāl with its rather small mosque and slender minaret and a few larger buildings in the southwestern part. At Abu Çemāl the western upland merges into the cultivated flood plain.” [ME, 12]. The settlement Musil describes must be what Alexander calls “the new village”.
  83. shinina: [şinīna] a beverage made of yoghurt diluted with water.
  84. as-Salhiyya: [aṣ-Ṣālḥīya] The military post that Alexander visits is described briefly by Musil as “the gendarmerie station of Nuḳṭat aṣ-Ṣālḥijje with a khan owned by a citizen of Dejr az-Zōr”.[ME, 11.] This is also the older name for the ruins that Alexander and the rest visit. In the margin he writes this name as aṣ-Ṣalāḥīya, which is incorrect.
  85. an old construction on the mountaintop: These are the extensive ruins of Dura Europos, known locally as Dura (fortress). Dura was founded by Seleucid Greeks in about 300 BC and grew to become a major manufacturing center. When it was taken by the Romans in about 160 AD, it became an important military outpost. During the first half of the third century, the city fell to a Persian siege and remained a forgotten ruins until it was finally identified in the 1920s. [See, the website of the archaeologist Simon James at http://www.le.ac.uk/ar/stj/dura/index.htm#late.] Alexander visits the site well before it was definitively identified. In a private communication Prof. James pointed out that Alexander seems to exaggerate the height of the raised plateau on which Dura stand by a factor of ten and calls it "a mountain". The circumfrence of the ruins is also exaggerated.
  86. al-Showayt: [aş-Şowayṭ] TBA
  87. piaster: [ghrush, ġurūş] this is the Turkish piaster, 1/100 of a Turkish pound (lira).
  88. majidi or the quarter majidi: TBA
  89. ashari: TBA
  90. Here Alexander writes a word that appears to be "menlik" but we cannot find reference to a coin by this name. Accordingly we are assuming that he intends "metlik/metelik", a form of the Ottoman Turkish "metālik" [after the French metallique (metalic)] referring to a very low value coin made of copper sometimes adulterated with other metals.
  91. qamari: [ḳamarī]TBA
  92. - - - -
  93. Al-Showeyt: Name of place, no reference found
  94. kroud: Plural of 'kerd, for reference see note number 072, page number 014,line
  95. Al-Mayadin: Name of a town in Syria
  96. : Al-Ana: Name of a small town , see note number 086, page number 020, line number 03 for the entry of April 25th 1897.
  97. : Al-Hit: Name of a small town, described in the entry for April 21st 1897.
  98. : buildings on the mountaintop: See Rahaba note
  99. : Rahaba: (also'rahabout'in the text) : .The name mentioned in the Old Testament is'Rah bout';the name of a city that was most probably built by Ninroud Bin Koush in 2000 BC. It was one of the Aramaic principalities destroyed by the Assyrians upon the rise of their Empire.In present day, the place is named the "Rahbi Citadel" or "Rahba Citadel" or "Qalaat al-Rahba",an Arab fortress that was built by Assad Al-Din Shirgoh who is the uncle of Salah Al-Din Al-Ayoubi. It was built to ensure the protection of the Euphrates route and to withstand Tatar and Mongol invasions.
  100. : Syriac: Referring to the 'Syriac' Christians, a community with a special culture and language, rooted in the Near East. part of the Eastern Christianity. The Syriac language is originally a dialect of the Aramaic and the Syriac culture in general has much borrowed from the early Rabbinic Judaism and Mesopotamian culture. 'Antioch' was the political capital of the Syriac Christians and the seat of the church's Patriarchs. Then, as it became more Hellenized, other cities especially in Mesopotamia rose as the Syriac cultural centers, like Ctesiphon and Nsibis. However, the Syriac Christianity faced persecution when both Latin and Greek Christian cultures were protected by the Roman and Byzantine empires. In the 5th century, due to the Nestorian schism, the Syriac Christians of the Persian Empire were separated from the Christians in the west and this event marked the making of its capital, Ctesiphon, the capital of the Church of the East. The year 425 witnessed another division among the Syriac Christians and the Patriarchate of Antioch to Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian communion as a result of the Council of Chalcedon. It is important to note herewith that the Chalcedonian churches do not use the Syriac language. Ref: wikipedia
  101. : Khabur: Name of a river in Syria. Al-Khabur: Arabic (Nahr Al-khabur), Turkish 'Habur Nehri', Sumerian 'Khubur', Akkadian 'Khabur' river, an important tributary of the Euphrates River. It rises in the mountains of southeastern Turkey near Diyarbakir and flows southeastward to Al-Hasakah, Syria, where it receives its main tributary, the Jaghjagh; it then meanders south to join the Euphrates downstream from Dayr az-Zawr. The Khabur (“Source of Fertility") has a total length of about 200 miles (320 km). The climate of the drainage basin is warm and semiarid to arid. The river has long been important for irrigating the fertile Al-Hasakah region of northeastern Syria.
  102. : dust: Toz in Turkish, the word is commonly used in Iraq meaning 'dust'.
  103. (Will only be used in Arabic version)
  104. : Bab-Al-Moathem: Name of a gate placed at North-Eastern part of Baghdad. Originally named 'Bab-aSultan', referring to the Seljouki Sultan Tagur Bek, in 1055 AD. , after the construction of the East wall of Baghdad ( the early beginnings took place during the reign of Khaliph al-Mustansir in 1118 AD to be finished by al-Mustarshid in 1135 AD.) The gate was demolished in 1923. It is thus named as it leads to the street where the big mosque of Imam al-Muathem is situated.
  105. : Battalion commandant (Taburaghassi): In Turkish usage ' tabur ' is a Battalion of about 800 men.
  106. : Razook Dinha: No reference obtained.
  107. : “...”: Illegible word.
  108. : Thomas Ossany: No reference is obtained.
  109. : Holy month of Mary: the Holy devotion month of Mary, in the Arabic text 'al-shahr al-maryiami, months special for reciting prayers to Virgin Mary.
  110. : Armenian Catholic: The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church "sui juris" within the Catholic Church. Historically it represents a schism from the Armenian Apostolic Church. It is in full communion with and subject to the authority of the pope in Rome as regulated by Eastern canon law. Armenian Catholic: The official schism of the Armenian church in the VIth century did not prevent many bishops, along centuries, to remain in communion with the Universal Church. Henceforth, since the XIth century, the Armenians united their efforts to those of the Crusaders for the re-conquest of the Holy places, and entered in relation with the church of Rome. However, this union did not materialize. The birt h of the Armenian Catholic Church did not take place until late 1742. It was recognized as such by the Pope Benoit XIV, and having at its head the patriarch Abraham-Pierre 1st ARDZIVIAN. Its residence was first at the Kreim, close to Harissa, then the patriarch bought land at Bzoummar where his successor built a convent and placed the first patriarchal ecclesiastical community which became thereafter a center of radiance for Lebanon, Cilicia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The Catholic Armenians have dioceses in countries of the Middle East, Europe and in the American continent. Three congregations or masculine religious institutes and a congregation of Catholic Armenian Sisters of the Immaculate Conception share the monastic life> In Lebanon and starting rom 1928, the Armenian Catholic Church was again reorganized to the administrative, scholar, cultural and social level. The number of its supporters is evaluated at approximately thirty thousand, served by about thirty priests and monks, spread over eight parishes.The Armenian Catholic Church is present in the religious, cultural, political and social Lebanese scene. Although the Armenian people are scattered, they maintain a sense of their national, cultural and religious identity.
  111. : Father Narciss: No references are found.
  112. : Parson Yacoob : No references are found.
  113. : Tony Ossany : No references are found. Check with Nowf about whether he is the same person as Thomas Ossany or not
  114. : Sa’id Effendi: Archbishop Ignatius’ brother.
  115. : Archbishop Ignatius: No references are found.
  116. : Antone, the song of Batti Al-Baghdadi: No references are found.
  117. : Touza: Wife of Jarjous.
  118. : Jarjous: Husband of Touza.
  119. : Archbishop Basil: No references are found.
  120. : kubba Mosul: (Arabic) name of a kind of meatball made of bulgur, onions, minced meat and spices.
  121. : Antone BaghdiBaghdassar: No reference is found.
  122. : sherbet: (Arabic), fruit juice, beverage.
  123. : Jarjis Dikrant: No reference is found.
  124. : Bitter orange (turunj): Citrus fruit mostly found in hot tropical countries. Scientific name 'Citrus Medica Risso'. Also known as the Seville Orange.
  125. : Monsieur Salim: No reference is found.
  126. : saray: (Turkish), palace, Seraglio.
  127. : Tom Dexter: Officer employed at the Residency, probably dragoman.See note number 049, page number 009, line number 04 for the entry of April 17th 1897.
  128. : Mutasarrif: (Arabic), Turkish administrative officer in Arab countries.
  129. : Zhair family: In Joseph svoboda's diaies, the Zhair family and head of family is frequently mnetioned, a family of notables in baghdad in the seventh decade of the nineteenth century thenceforth.
  130. : Director of Palmyra: No reference is obtained.
  131. : Al-A'qfir: Probably an old name for the Syrian desert derived from the Arabic word "qaf'r" meaning 'wilderness'.No reference is obtained.
  132. : Al-Malhah: Name of a place.No reference found.
  133. : Al-Kebakeb: Name of a place.No reference found.
  134. : station: 'Konag' in the Arabic text, a Turkish word, see note number 038, page number 006, line number 25.
  135. : serene: French word transcribed into Arabic ib the Arabic text, see note number 077, page number 20, line number 016 for the entry of April 21st 1897.
  136. : mule-litter: 'Takhterewan' in the Arabic text, a Turkish word, see note number 001, page number 002, line number 06, for the entry of April 10th 1897.
  137. : Bedouin: Derived from the Arabic 'badawi', also spelled Beduin, a generic name for a desert-dweller,is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups. The Bedouins constitute only a small part of the total population of the Middle East but inhabit or utilize a large part of the land area throughout most of the desert belt. Most of them are animal herders who migrate into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back toward the cultivated land in the dry summer months. Following World War I the Bedouin tribes had to submit to the control of the governments of the countries in which their wandering areas lay. This also meant that the Bedouins' internal feuding and the raiding of outlying villages had to be given up, to be replaced by more peaceful commercial relations, service in armed forces and even labor in construction became more common, especially after World War II. The tribal character of Bedouin society continued, however, as did the patriarchal order in their extended, patrilineal, endogamous and polygynous families. However, many of them had become sedentary as a result of political and economic developments especially since World War II. Among the Arabic-speaking tribes, the head of the family, as well as of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure, is called 'sheikh', the sheikh is assisted by an informal tribal council of male elders.
  138. : M'hayfir: Name of a place.No reference found.
  139. : Ottomans: in the Arabic diary the word 'Osmalli' is used, a colloquial form.
  140. : Lira: (Turkish) Turkish lira, a unit of currency.
  141. : As-Safnah: The diarist also wrote 'As-Safnah', Name of a place.No reference found.
  142. : Al-Kerrada: Part of the city of Baghdad to the South and on the East bank of the Tigris River (also called Karrada Sharkiya –Eastern Kerrada). During the Ottoman rule until the British occupation in 1917, this part was a village consisting of farmlands with mud houses for the farmers, separated from Baghdad wilayet by many big and thick attached orchards with no construction except for some sarays owned by the people of the rich and wealthy society. The farmers and inhabitants of the village used to draw water from the River Tigris that was necessary for the irrigation of their farms and plantations, using a primitive hoisting device called 'kerd', hence the name; Al-Kerrada'.
  143. : Ar-Raqqa: Name of a place.No reference found.
  144. : Shammar: Name of a Bedouin tribe mainly in Saudi Arabia, central and western Iraq. It is the second largest Bedouin tribe of Arabia. They sprout from Ta'ee tribe in Yemen and lived a sedentary life style and became camel herders and horse breeders in Northern Najd for centuries and expanded north into Iraq during the seventeenth century.
  145. Wikipedia
  146. : like worms: See end-note for April 21st 1897.
  147. : Fahad bin Ithgayim bin Haddal: Sheikh of the Shammar tribe, no reference is found.
  148. : gaz: The French word 'gaz' is transcibed into Arabic, (Kaz) most probably borrowed from the Ottoman language.
  149. : Seat: The Turkish word 'Iskemle' meaning chair is transcribed in the Arabic text.That word was still in use among the inhabitants of Iraq for many years after the end of the Ottoman rule.
  150. : Palmyra: (Tudmor) in the Arabic text, An important city in the ancient times, located in central Syria, Northeast Damascus. It was known as the bride of the desert. The name 'Palmyra', an original Greek translation for the Aramaic name 'Tadmor', means 'palm tree'.It was mentioned in the 2nd millennium BC, in the archives of Mari, also in the Hebrew Bible, as a city that is fortified by Solomon. When the Seleucids took control of Syria, in 323 BC, the city was left to itself and it became independent. Then, in the 1st century BC, Palmyra flourished as a caravan halt. It was made part of the Roman province of Syria during the reign of Tiberius (14- 37) and the city grew steadily in importance as a trade route linking Persia, India, China and the Roman Empire, until 212, when the Sasanids occupied the mouth of both Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and Odaenathus,a Prince of Palmyra who was also appointed governor of the province of Syria was assassinated and his wife Zenobia took power, ruling Palmyra .She rebelled against Roman authority and took lands as far as Egypt. In 272, she was captured by the Roman Emperor Aurelian and brought her back to Rome. The Romans then forced Palmyra to become a military base for the Roman Legions. The Byzantine period resulted in building few churches only and much of the city was in ruin. The Muslim Arabs took the city under Khalid ibn Al-Walid and Palmyra was kept intact.
  151. : Aniza: (pronounced 'Iniza) Bedouin tribe that lives in northern Saudi Arabia, western Iraq and the Syrian steppe. The Royal families of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain are traced to this tribe. The Sheikh General lives in Western Iraq. This is one of the largest Arab Bedouin tribes with clans in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. Gulf countries, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey and Egypt.
  152. : the Moslem's Feast of Sacrifices: Eid ul-Adha (Arabic),It occurs on the tenth day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hija. It is one of two festivals that Muslims celebrate. Eid ul-Adha is celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Prophet Ibrahim's (Abraham's) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for God.
  153. : castle: endnote page number(...)in Translated text for the entry of May 11th 1897
  154. : castle: Situated on a mountaintop to the West of Palmyra, the Arab fort known as Palmyra Castle (Qalat Tadmor, or Qalat ibn Ma'an) was originally built during the Ayubid era (12-13th century) and then reconstructed and extended by the Lebanese Emir Fakhr Al-Din ibn Ma'ani in the 17th century as means of defense against the Ottoman encroachment. However, his plans were unsuccessful and he was captured by the Ottomans and executed in 1635. The castle was surrounded by a moat, with access available only through a drawbridge.
  155. : photograph: See note number68, page number 14, line number 04 for the entry of April 20th 1897.
  156. : Sheikh of Palmyra, Mohammed bin Abdullah: No references are obtained.
  157. : Ma'ana bin Za'ida: See note number 074, page number 039, line number 17 for the entry of May 10th 1897.
  158. : Zenobia: See note number 071, page number 037, line number 24 for the entry of May 9th 1897.
  159. : Sultana: (Also, 'Sultaness'), is the wife of a sultan. 'Sultan', an Arabic word meaning 'absolute ruler', also 'power, might, strength, rule, reign, dominion, authority and legitimation.).
  160. : Sultana: Title given to the Emperor of the Turks and to some Moslem Princes.
  161. Petit Larrousse, 1966.
  162. : tower: The French word 'Tour' is used in the Arabic text.
  163. : binoculars: in the Arabic text, the word "derbin" is "durbin" (with "waw" and "ya") which is a Persian compound ("dur" = "far", "bin" = "seeing") used in Ottoman Turkish for "binoculars", this word is still commonly used in Iraq nowadays.
  164. : mezzanine: The word 'mezzanine' is transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary,'mezzanine' is a small level lying in between two other wider levels. Derived from the Italian word 'mezzanino' that has for meaning 'a floor of low hight that is usually situated in between the ground floor and first level.
  165. : Napoleon Bonaparte:
  166. : Faust Lorion Coloman: No reference is obtained.
  167. : Joseph Khouri: For reference, see entry for June 2nd 1897.
  168. : Josephine: For reference, see entry for June 2nd 1897.
  169. : Aunt Medula: Aunt Madeleine. No reference is obtained.
  170. : Kinloche: No reference is obtained.
  171. : J. Rico: No reference is obtained.
  172. : simoom: An Arabic word, ' samum', is the strong and hot wind of the desert, hot sandstorm.
  173. : tea: See note number 039, page number007, line number 004,for the entry of April 16th 1897.
  174. : city: 'Wilayet' in the Arabic text, an Arabic word that at the time was used to mean 'town' or 'city'.
  175. : support: In the Arabic text, the word 'dinga' is used. In Iraq this word is colloquially used to mean 'support, column or pillar' (origin unknown.)
  176. : Al-Qaryatayn: Name of a Village in Syria. See entry for May 14th 1897.
  177. : The Consul at Damascus: The diarist meant the British Consul at Damascus, no reference is obtained.
  178. : the governor of Al-Qaryatayn: No reference is obtained.
  179. : Al-Baytha: Name of a place in Syria.
  180. : coat: The English word is transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.This word is mostly used by the Christain community in Iraq.
  181. : Al-Iksayir: Name of a place.
  182. : Al-Basrah: Name of a city in Souther Iraq situated on the Arab Gulf, it is the country's port.
  183. : Sheikh of Al-Qaryatayn: In the text 'Sheikh of Al-Qaryatay named Fayath', no reference is found.
  184. : Vienna seats: Seats manufactured by the Thonet Brothers Company, established in Vienna-Austria in 1849, for the manufacture of bentwood furniture. They received a patent in 1856 for creating furniture by bending steamed wood. Their designs were considered forerunners of the 'Art Nouveau' movement.
  185. : beds: "charpaye", in the Arabic text is a Persian word, a form of "charpa" [char = four + pa = foot] which means, among other things, "bedstead".
  186. : salon: Transcibed into Arabic in the Arabic diary, "salon" derived from the Italian word "salone" from "sala" meaning "room" and "hall", the word is used in the text to mean a room where guests are received.
  187. : Parson Ibrahim: Syriac priest. No reference is found.
  188. : iqal: See note nummber 025, page number 005, line number 12 for the entry of April 15th 1897.
  189. : the pathways of the buffaloes: Pathways of the buffaloes (Al-Jamouss) at Baghdad, no reference is found.
  190. : diwan: (Arabic) word that has for meaning 'hall'and 'meeting room'.
  191. : Pistols: "warawer" in the Arabic diary, plural of "warwar", a colloquial word that has for meaning "a revolver"and is derived from this English word.
  192. : Chaldean school at Baghdad: No reference is obtained.
  193. : throne: The word is transcribed into Arabic with some alteration, it must have been commonly used to indicate a "throne" in a church.
  194. : room: The word "oda" is used in the Arabic text, probably of Turkish origin. This word is still used in the dialect of the inhabitants of some cities in Northern Iraq as well as Egypt.
  195. : the government of Damascus: The Ottoman authorities in Damascus
  196. : Archbishop Basil: See note number 032, page number030, line number 22 for the entry of May 3rd 1897.
  197. : hotel: Transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  198. : Mahin: Name of a place, no reference is found.
  199. : Hajra: Name of a place, no reference is found.
  200. : H'fayir: Name of a place, no reference is found.
  201. : Jacobite Christians: Jacobitism was (and, to a limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The movement took its name from the Latin form Jacobus of the name of King James II and VII.Jacobitism was a response to the deposition of James II and VII in 1688 when he was replaced by his daughter Mary II jointly with her husband and first cousin William of Orange. The Stuarts lived on the European mainland after that, occasionally attempting to regain the throne with the aid of France or Spain. Within the British Isles, the primary seats of Jacobitism were Ireland and (Highland, particularly) Scotland. There was also some support in England and Wales, particularly in Northern England.Many embraced Jacobitism because they believed parliamentary interference with monarchical succession to be illegitimate, and many Catholics hoped the Stuarts would end discriminatory laws; but people of various allegiances became involved in the military campaigns for all sorts of motives. In Scotland the Jacobite cause became entangled in the last throes of the warrior Clan system, and became a lasting romantic memory.
  202. : priest Salman: no reference is found.
  203. : Telkeyif: Arabic for Telkaipian, a citizen from Telkaif, a village in Nineveh province (capital Mossul) of northern Iraq.Telkeif is surrounded by farming lands called Boudratha (like meadows), where Telkeipians grow wheat and vegetables and maintain cattle -sheep and cows- as main activity for living. In addition, some Telkeipians are merchants, carpenters ,operate burgul or tahini mills , and in the past some were even well known for making the Roushwanas (saddle seats filled with hay – straw)for horse and mule riding . The inhabitants of the village are called Chaldean are originally Assyrians, descendants of the Assyrian of antiquity. Several Telkeipian families had emigrated to the United States and most live in Michigan. They are also well known for their folklore dress.
  204. : as clear as albumen: A local expression.
  205. : Dayr Stam: Name of a place, no reference is found.
  206. : note in the margin: the diarist wrote the following in the margin: "4000 inhabitants are in An-Nabuk"
  207. : An-Nabuk: Name of a place, no reference is found.
  208. : Parson Butros: no reference is found.
  209. : Father Hanna: no reference is found.
  210. : Farida Al-Nakasha: no reference is found.
  211. : Protestant: TBA
  212. : Mr. Stewart: No reference is found.
  213. : telegraphs: See note number 009, page number 002, line number 018 for the entry of April 10th 1897.
  214. : Aleppo: Name of a city in Syria.
  215. : Al-Qastal: Name of a a village, no reference is found.
  216. : Qutayfah: Name of a a village, no reference is found.
  217. : Wali of Damascus: Information about the Wali Hoossayn Nadhoom is obtained from the book "Damascus during the rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, [1876 – 1908] AD, [1293 - 1325] Hejire" by Marie Dikran Serko, Dr. – published by the Syrian public organization for books [al-Haya' al-Amma al-Sooriya lil-Kitab] - Ministry of Culture, Damascus.See note number 088, page number 020, line number 018 for the entry of April 25th 1897.
  218. : khan: (Arabic) inn.
  219. : fruit: In the Arabic text, the word 'Meyva' is used, probably of Turkish origin.
  220. : Boughaz: Name of a place , no reference is found. "Boughaz" is a Turkish word that has for meaning 'Straight'.
  221. : Al-Qasir: Name of a place, no reference is found.
  222. : path: In the Arabic text the word 'mederban' is used. No references available. In Iraq, Baghdad, the word was used to indicate a narrow and long path or walkway. It is rarely used after the fifties of the twentieth century.
  223. : Duma: "Dooma" is the largest city in the governorate of Damascus. It has more than 250000inhabitants and it is situated at the north east of Damascus and 14 kilometers far from it. Itis surrounded by farms and agricultural lands, also vineyards and orchards planted with olive trees. "Dooma" has numerous historical places still existing of which a number of mosques, old houses and hamams, also a number of khans and others.
  224. : hospital: In the Arabic text, the Turkish word 'hastekhane' is used, it is of two words, 'haste'that means sick and 'khane' that means place.
  225. : Kishla: A Turkish word that has for meaning ' military barracks' in Syria and ' hospital' in Egypt.
  226. : Toma: Thomas Gate (Bab Tooma, or Bab Touma), a gate located in the north-east corner of the old of the city of Damascus , among eight extant gates, the oldest of which date back to the Roman period. It was named after a famous Roman leader, his name is Thomas, and it lead into the Christian quarter of the same name.
  227. : Dar-Al-Darb: Name of a garden, no reference is found.
  228. : Priest Salman Tabouni: no reference is found.
  229. : guard: (Arabic) kavass, consular guard.
  230. : Patriarchate: This word is composed of two words,'patrak' that means 'patriarch'and 'hane' or 'khane' that means 'place'.
  231. : fountains: In the Arabic text the word 'çaderwanat' plural of 'çaderwan' is used, it has for meaning 'fountain' .The word was commonly used in Iraq and its origin is unknown.
  232. : telegraph: 'Tel' in the Arabic text, for reference see note number 059, page number 16, line number 016 for the entry of April 19th 1897.
  233. : Louisa: The diarist's cousin.
  234. : Artin: No reference is found.
  235. : Jamil Abdul-Karim: No reference is found.
  236. : Antoine Julietti: No reference is found.
  237. : telegraph office: In the Arabic text 'telegraphkhane' is used by the diarist, from ' telegraph ' and ' khane ' that means ' a place '. (See also the glossary for April 19th.)
  238. : Roman Church: No reference is found
  239. dome: The English word 'dome' is transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  240. : postcard: In the Arabic text, the French phrase ' carte postale ' is used and transcribed into Arabic.
  241. : Antoine Hubert: No reference is found.
  242. Beirut: (Arabic: بيروت‎, Bayrūt) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon with a population ranging from some 1 million to over 2 million as of 2007. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's coastline with the Mediterranean sea, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan Area, which consists of the city and its suburbs. The first mention of this metropolis is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters, dating to the 15th century BC, and the city has been continuously inhabited since.
  243. : post: The English word 'post' is transcribed into Arabic.
  244. : shops: In the Arabic text, the word ' maghaza' is used, probably of Turkish origin.
  245. : Al-Hamidiyah: Famous market in Syria that still bears the same name.
  246. : photographers: In the Arabic text, the word is transcribed into Arabic with a slight modification that is 'photographjiyeh'.
  247. : cane: In the Arabic text,'baston' a colloquial form of the French word 'bâton'is used.
  248. Roman Catholic Church:
  249. bronze: In the Arabic text the word'prinj' that is a colloquial form of the word 'bronze' is used, probably taken from the Ottoman language.
  250. Hotel Basraoni: No reference is found.
  251. : railway station: In the Arabic text, the French phrase ' Station de chemin de fer' is used.
  252. Shama’aya's house: The historian Naoman Al-Qasatli speaks of the Jews' palaces that were built between 1865 and 1872 in Damascus of which the house of Shamaya among many other houses saying that not less than 20 thousands Liras were expended for each
  253. Majidi: See note number 105, page number 026, line numer 05 for the entry of April 30th 1897.
  254. room: In the Arabic text, the Turkish word 'oda' is used.
  255. Doctor Majid: No reference is available.
  256. Ali Al-Kurdi Al-Baghdadi: No reference is available.
  257. Khowaja: from the Persian “khwaje" and probably through the Turkish “hoja" meaning “teacher, learned person".) (Word commonly used in the Arabic world), mister, title and form of address, especially for Christians and Westerners, used with or without the name of the person addressed.
  258. wife: In the Arabic text, the word 'Madame' is used with a form of colloquial alteration, 'Madamtuh'
  259. Al-Safanyah: No reference is found.
  260. Al-Midan: "al-Midan" is one of the suburban areas that surrounded the old city of Damascus that was enclosed by the city walls and it lies to the South-west of the city ". The history of these districts date back to the Middle Ages and they arose on roads leading out of the city, near to the tombs of religious figures.. ".
  261. workshop: In the Arabic text, the word 'Karakhane' is used, composed of the words 'kara' that means 'work' and 'khane' meaning place.
  262. railway: 'Chemin de fer' in the Arabic text is transcibed into Arabic.
  263. Christopher: No reference is available
  264. shoes: The word 'kondara' is used in the Arabic text, a Western-style shoe (in Syria).
  265. hat: The word 'shapka' is used in the Arabic text, a Turkish word.
  266. Monsieur: The French word is trabscribed into Arabic in the Arabic text.
  267. Bao: No reference is available.
  268. Abdullah Al-Zalgha: No reference is available.
  269. Habib Al-Ghanounji: No reference is available.
  270. Al-Ashani: No reference is available.
  271. Monsieur Elia: The interpreter of the Austrian Consul,no reference is availbable.
  272. Austrian Consul: See note number 195, page number 055, line number 03 for the entry of May 20th 1897.
  273. passport: The English word is transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  274. Monsieur Rontopoulo: The Austrian Consul in Damas, no reference is available.
  275. Madam Kwaydan: No reference is available.
  276. quarantine: The French word 'quarantaine' is transncribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  277. House of Lady Rosa the Damascene: (bayt Al-Sit Rosa Al-Shamiyah)in the Arabic text, no reference is available.
  278. mosaic: The French word 'mosa?que' is used in the Arabic text.
  279. Lazarists: A nickname given to the members of the congregation of the Mission that was established in 1625 by Saint Vincent de Paul because they lived at the priory of Saint-Lazare.
  280. visit: In the Arabic text, the French word 'visite' is transcribed into Arabic.
  281. House of Ahmed's Father: In the Arabic text'bayt Abi-Ahmed', no referene is available.
  282. European: In the Arabic text, the word 'Franjiyat' (feminine, plural), has for meaning, the Franks or Europeans. From the Latin ' Francus'.
  283. Parson Boutros: No reference is available.
  284. card: The word 'card' is ranscribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  285. Saint Ananias: Ananias: (Saint) a Christian disciple who lived in Damascus at the time of Saul of Tarsus. The Saint was born and lived in Damascus among an existing community of Jews in the city that was mainly occupied by an Arab merchant people at the time, called 'Nabateans'. A community of Christian disciples had thus grown up in the city and Saint Ananias was, as known, born in Damascus, where he also lived and was evangelized. He received a vision of Jesus in which he was ordered to find a man from Tarsus named Saul who persecuted the Christians, and cure him of his blindness, at the house of Judas, situated in a street called 'Straight' and this is where, in the cellar of this house, he laid his hands on Saul and thus restored his eyesight,and he also baptized the man who was later known Apostle Paul. The cellar at the house of Judas is the place where Saint Paul hid and worshipped. It is located at the Christian Quarter, at the end of Bab Sharqi Street, and is made now as a chapel. Apostle Ananias was one of 70 disciples sent by Christ to spread his Gospel. And it was Apostle Ananias who later saved Saint Paul and helped him flee from Damascus where his life was threatened, by putting him in a basket that was lowered over the city wall. But the refusal of Apostle Ananias to offer sacrifices to idols would later result in his martyrdom. (Memorial Day: 25 January). Wikipedia.
  286. Latins: The Latin church is the church of the West.
  287. organ: The French word 'orgue' is written in the Arabic text.
  288. friar: The word 'Padrieh' is written in the Arabic text, a colloquial form for the French word'peres'or Italian word 'padre'
  289. Capuchins: A religious man or woman forming part of the order of Saint-Fran?ois.
  290. FatherToma: In the Arabic text, the phrase 'Padre Toma' is used and 'padre' is transcribed into Arabic. No reference is available.
  291. Abd-Al-Noor: No reference is available.
  292. Khowaja Mikha’ill Sabagh: No reference is available.
  293. Antoine Jule: No reference is available.See note number 161, page number 052, line number 017 and note number 156, page number 052, line number 04.
  294. Razook Bahoshi: No reference is available.
  295. Grand Hotel of the Orient: In the Arabic text 'Grand Hotel d'Orient', no reference is available.
  296. English priest: No reference is available.
  297. Al-Salhiyah: No reference is available.
  298. Situated along the Barada valley and in the northwest, "Dumar" is one of the main areas in Damascus that the city planners developed in the later twentieth century and where newer suburbs were created.
  299. Francis Shiha: No reference is available.
  300. Habib Shiha: No reference is available.See note number 27, page number 005, line number 24.
  301. Al-Misk: Name of a bath. No reference is available.
  302. stamps: In the Arabic text, the word 'Pul' is used that is a Turkish usage of a Persian word which seems to have meant ' a small coin '. It has for meaning 'stamp, either postage or revenue, also 'fish scale'.stamp collector: in the Arabic text, the French phrase (Collectioneur de timbres-poste) is written.
  303. Talat Nassouri: No refernce is found.
  304. Standard* Piastres : in the Arabic text 'Sagh' is used to mean ' proper, standard, in order, right ' in addition that it means ' a rank in the army and police '.
  305. hotel de l'orient: Transcribed into Arabic, an abbreviation of the 'Grand Hotel d'Orient'.
  306. antiques: The French word 'antique' is transcribed into Arabic.
  307. Archbishop Antoine: No reference is available.
  308. Al-Safaniyah: No reference is available.
  309. Al-Hadi Ashariyah: No reference is available.
  310. like worms: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897.
  311. Al-Baghdadi: No reference is available.
  312. like sand: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897.
  313. Ba'albek: Situated east of the Litani River, Ba'albek that is named for the lord Baal of the Beqaa valley where it lies, is an ancient Phoenician city known as Heliopolis. It became a Roman colony in the first century A.D. and since that time continuous constructions were undertaken by the consecutive Roman Emperors to build and modify the sumptuous and monumental temples for their deities as it was a place of an oracle and divination from earliest times. Famous for three great temples of which the most important is the temple sacred to Jupiter Baal that is identified with the sun hence known in tradition as the Temple of the Sun, the other two temples are for the worship of the deities Venus and Bacchus. In the fifties of the third century, Heliopolis was known as one of the largest two sanctuaries in the Western world besides Praeneste in Italy. With the spread of Christianity, the Emperor Constantine and others succeeding him built basilicas using parts of the temples and their vast stone blocks. The Emperor Justinian ordered to have eight columns disassembled and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia. During the early Islamic period, the old city was a cause of argument especially between the caliphs of Damascus and then of Egypt. The Crusaders raided the city and it was three times shaken by earthquakes, however it revived in 1282 owing its fine architecture reflected in its mosque and fortress to Sultan Qalawun. In the fifteenth century, the city was pillaged by Timur. In 1517, the city was controlled by the Ottomans as the rest of Syria, though the Ottomans' authority was only nominal. It was once more destroyed by earthquakes in 1759. In 1840, the Ottomans were granted full authority in Ba'albek with the treaty of London. The digs started in Ba'albek in 1898 by order of the German Emperor Wilhelm II who while traveling to Jerusalem, passed by Ba'albek and was very impressed by the monumentality and beauty of the ruins though earlier in the 18th century interested archeologists had made engravings and documentation of the ruins.
  314. Shukrullah Aboud: No reference is available.
  315. train: The English word 'train' is used in the Arabic text.
  316. Al-Baramika: No reference is available.
  317. ticket: The French word 'billet' is used in the Arabic text.
  318. Zahlah: No reference is available.
  319. train: The French word 'train' is transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  320. Mansour: No reference is available.
  321. Mohammed: No reference is available.
  322. Dumar: No reference is available.
  323. Jdayda: No reference is available.
  324. Ayn Fijah: No reference is available.
  325. Dayr Qanun: No reference is available.
  326. Souk Wadi Barada: The small village of Souk Wadi Barada (28 km) stands on the site of the ancient Hellenistic town of Abila.
  327. Zabdani: No reference is available.
  328. Sargayah: No reference is available.
  329. Yahfufah: No reference is available.
  330. Riyaq: No reference is available.
  331. Mu'allaqah: No reference is available.
  332. Buffet de gare: the French phrase 'Buffet de gare' is written in the Arabic diary.
  333. No reference is available.
  334. Bayt-Shimah: No reference is available.
  335. Hotel Victoria: No reference is available.
  336. bowl: The word 'minkassa' is used in the Arabic diary, a colloquial form for 'kassa' meaning 'bowl'.
  337. foot: This word is transcibed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  338. steps: The word 'paya' (in the singular) is used in the Arabic diary, origin unknown.
  339. Temple of Jupiter: In the Arabic diary, 'Temple de Jupiter'
  340. Temple of of the Sun: In the Arabic diary, 'Temple du Soleil'.
  341. Train: In the Arabic diary, 'kari al-nar', a very old appellation for the train used in Mesopotamia among the residents of Baghdad and other cities, it has for meaning 'that functions by fire', its origin is unknown.
  342. Franc: is the name of several currency units, most notably the French franc.
  343. Kark:
  344. Noah: (or Noe, Noach; Hebrew: נֹחַ, נוֹחַ, Modern Noaẖ Tiberian Nōăḥ; Arabic: نوح Nūḥ; Greek: Νωέ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the tenth and last of the antediluvian Patriarchs. The biblical story of Noah is contained in chapters 6–9 of the book of Genesis, where he saves his family and representatives of all animals from the flood by constructing an ark.
  345. Train: In the Arabic diary, 'kari al-hadid', a very old appellation for the train used in Mesopotamia among the residents of Baghdad and other cities, it has for meaning 'that functions by fire', its origin is unknown.See note number 266, page number 063, line number 11.
  346. ticket: In the Arabic diary, the Arabic word 'tathkara' is slightly changed because of Turkish spelling effects.
  347. Sayed Nayil: No reference is available.
  348. Jaditha: No reference is available.
  349. Ashtora: No reference is available.
  350. Rijat: No reference is available.
  351. tunnel: The French word 'tunnel' is used in the Arabic diary.
  352. locomotive: The French word 'locomotive' is used in the Arabic diary.
  353. B'hamdun : Name of a place, no reference is available.
  354. Alay: Name of a place, no reference is available.
  355. Araya: Name of a place, no reference is available.
  356. Jumhur: Name of a place, no reference is available.
  357. Babade: Name of a place, no reference is available.
  358. Beirut: is the capital and largest city of Lebanon with a population ranging from some 1 million to over 2 million as of 2007. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's coastline with the Mediterranean sea, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan Area, which consists of the city and its suburbs. The first mention of this metropolis is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters, dating to the 15th century BC, and the city has been continuously inhabited since.
  359. Hadath: Name of a place, no reference is available.
  360. Bahjat Nassoury: No reference is available.
  361. Hotel of America: In the Arabic text,'Hotel D'Am?rique' is written.
  362. Jany Kasperkhan:
  363. Sayegh family: No reference is available
  364. Soeur Angelique: No reference is available.
  365. address: The French word is transcibed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  366. Marseilles: is the second most populous city in France, after Paris.
  367. passport: The French word 'passport' is transcibed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
  368. Ottomans: 'Osmanlli'in the Arabic text, a colloquial form of 'Ottoman'in the local dialect.
  369. Syria: is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east,Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
  370. America:
  371. Orenoque: Name of the ship.
  372. Sellier: The name of the Captain who sailed the ‘Orénoque’.
  373. salon: The French word 'salon' is transcribed into Arabic on the Arabic diary.
  374. table: in the arabic diary 'mayz' derived from the Roman word 'masa'is transcribed into Arabic.
  375. piano: The Italian word 'piano' is transcribed into Arabic in the Arabic diary.
Glossary
  1. From the Persian 'takht-e revan', 'takht' meaning throne or chair, and 'revan' meaning moving. Mule-litter or mule-born litter.
  2. TBA
  3. Times [an unattested plural of marrat of which the usual plural in both Literary Arabic and Colloquial Arabic is marraat with the possible variant miraar]. (Georgetown, Wehr)
  4. Transcribed from Arabic, the word 'Balioz' is originally the Turkish form of the title of the 'Baglio', the Venetian Representative to the Ottoman court.
  5. TBA
  6. London (this is the usual Ottoman Turkish spelling of the place name). (Redhouse)
  7. From the Greek words 'Tel' meaning far, and 'Graphein' meaning to write.
  8. European Time (solar mean time, see #N002:17).
  9. TBA: see #T002:09.
  10. TBA
  11. Thick: a dialect variant for ثخين (Georgetown).
  12. 'Shahadatname', a Turkish word used in the Arabic text meaning a written declaration or testimonial, certification.
  13. In the Arabic text the word 'Konsulhane' is used, from the Turkish 'Konsul' meaning consul and 'hane' meaning place.
  14. Mule-litter [the Persian takht-e revaan, a modifying (izafet) compound of takht (seat, throne) and revaan (moving). Also common in Ottoman, which is possibly the source. (Steingass, Redhouse)
  15. TBA
  16. TBA
  17. ('kefsh-kan' in Persian,'kefsh-ken in Turkish) is a small room where one takes off one{222}s slippers or shoes.
  18. Possessions, baggage [gharadh, gharaadh appears in this sense in Iraqi colloquial (Georgetown) but this form (gh-r-dhaan) must be a dialect form, perhaps Christian.]
  19. Turkish transliteration for police officer.
  20. A Turkish word having for meaning :(Literally 'it was so ordered ') an order or a decree, most often a safe-conduct issued to someone about to travel in the Empire and addressed to any government official.
  21. Name of a small river in Baghdad.
  22. (Arabic), headband of camel's hair holding the kufiya in place.
  23. (Arabic), square kerchief diagonally folded and worn under the iqual as headdress. May be also transcribed 'kafiye'.
  24. TBA خواص الركاب ???
  25. Name of a place in the left bank of Baghdad.
  26. Transcribed in the Arabic text, the word is Persian in origin (karw{342}n) and has for meaning ' a number of travelers who are brought together to cut across a desert or a land that is not very safe.
  27. {347}adir in the Arabic text, an Ottoman word meaning tent, storehouse, warehouse.
  28. The Turkish word 'canta' is used in the Arabic test, it has for meaning :satchel, bag , suitcase and also handbag.
  29. In the Arabic text , the word 'kaghid' is used that is a very common Ottoman (also modern Turkish) and Persian word for 'paper'.
  30. TBA
  31. TBA
  32. The word 'konag' is frequently used in the Arabic text meaning a place where a person stops traveling (like Arabic 'manzil'), a way-station, a guest, a halting place, an inn. It means also a mansion or governor{222}s palace.
  33. Name of one part of Baghdad city famous for its shrine with gilded domes.
  34. TBA
  35. The region of the town formed part of the Sassanid Empire and the town of Al-Fallujah was also, as known in Jewish history, the center of Jewish learning. Then, during the Ottoman rule, the town became a minor stop on the travel road across the West desert in the region of Mesopotamia. Afterwards, during the British occupation of Iraq, in 1920, Colonel G. Leachman, the colonial officer who was sent to meet the local leader, Sheikh Dhari, was eventually murdered in this place. The town of Al-Fallujah grew after the independence of Iraq.
  36. (Arabic) administrative officer at the head of a ' qa'da ', district.President, district officer.
  37. Name of a village.
  38. Name of a plant
  39. In the Arabic text , the diarist used 'carte visite' , the French version transcribed inte Arabic.
  40. 'Sboyde' in the Arabic text
  41. in the Arabic text , the word is transcribed into Arabic
  42. Name of an Arab tribe.
  43. No references found.
  44. Name of a place in Baghdad.
  45. Plural of 'kerd'.See 'Kerrada'in glossay, May 8th 1897
  46. In the Arabic text, the word is transcribed to Arabic.
  47. TBA
  48. 'Farisee' relative to Persia.
  49. phrase commonly used in the diary but in different forms.
  50. English word largely used throughout the Arabic diary transcribed into Arabic.
  51. In the Arabic text, the word '?arpayat' is used, commonly used till now in Iraq.
  52. Water pots, ewers, jugs [An unusual colloquial Arabic broken plural of ibriiq (pl. abaariq), which is an Arabic borrowing of the Persian aab-riz/rikh (water-pourer).] (Wehr, Steingass, Georgetown)
  53. See notes072.
  54. Transcribed into English, probably a kind of plant, no references found.
  55. Transcribed into English from the Arabic text.
  56. TBA
  57. TBA
  58. Small skins holding for holding milk or cream [The plural of sijwa (شجوه) pronounced sichwa in Iraqi colloquial. (Georgetown)
  59. Small skin container [see T026:14.] (Georgetown)
  60. TBA