Physics 226

Particles and Symmetries

Spring 2014

 

Instructor:

Stephen D. Ellis (mailto:sdellis@uw.edu)

Office:

PAB B401

Office hours:

Proposed – Tu 3:30 – 4:30 PM, PAB401/405
                   Th 1:30 – 2:30 PM, PAB401/405
                   Th 5 – 6:15 PM  PAA118 (or PAA114) 

TAs:


Seyda Ipek, B426, ipek@uw.edu
Ahmet Keles, B442, keles@uw.edu
Bosong Sun, B229, smithsbs@uw.edu
Han-Chih Chang, B418, hanchih@uw.edu                           

Lectures:

9:30-10:20 AM, MWF, room PAA 118

Webpage

http://courses.washington.edu/partsym

Email list

mailto:Phys226a_sp14@u.washington.edu

Atlas detector at LHCHiggs bump in CMS diphoton mass distribution 

 

Clicker registration  here

      

Particle Physics in the News

Simulated black hole production
    in the Atlas detector at LHCRecent particle physics related articles
Ripples from the Big Bang (3/24/14)
Space Ripples Reveal Big Bang’s Smoking Gun  (3/17/14)
Why particle physics matters  (9/10/13)
Dark Energy Survey  (9/7/13)
AMS: antimatter in space  (4/3/13)
Chasing the Higgs  (3/5/13)
Search for the Higgs boson at the LHC reveals new particle  (7/4/12)
Daya Bay: Neutrino oscillations and ϑ13  (3/8/12)
Superluminal neutrinos? (not!)  (2/22/12)
Natural particle collider in space  (8/21/12)

 

A video of the UW HEP Group’s presentations at the “Higgs Night Out” held at T.S. McHugh's
on the evening of 7/3/12 can be found at http://kcts9.org/education/science-cafe/higgs-boson-explained

Here is a talk introducing the LHC and the Higgs boson presented at the San Juan Nature Institute (2/27/14).

Inside the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector 


Class Overview

Candidate double Z-boson event
    from the CDF experiment at FermilabThis course provides an introduction to the fundamental constituents of matter and the symmetries which characterize their interactions. Topics include the fundamental symmetries of nature (such as Lorentz invariance, CPT, and baryon and lepton number conservation), the "building blocks" of the current Standard Model of nuclear and particle physics (for example, quarks, gluons and leptons), the importance of symmetries in characterizing the interactions of particles, and the key experimental evidence on which the Standard Model is based.

 

Course Objectives

Atlas detector schematicLike most physics courses, the “big picture” goals in this course are two-fold: to acquire knowledge about physical aspects of the universe we live in and to learn to quantitatively analyze physical systems, i.e., solve problems.  More specifically, students will acquire practical facility with special relativity and its application to relativistic particle dynamics.  They will learn to be able to identify various classes of elementary particles and predict the type of interactions responsible for their decays and scatterings.  They will practice performing order-of magnitude estimates relevant for interpreting and/or judging the feasibility of a variety of modern physics experiments.  Along the way, we will attempt to pay close attention to new results coming from the LHC at CERN, e.g., results on the Higgs boson.  (For the latest LHC news go to the LPCC.) 

The course covers material from several different, but related, subject areas.  The primary reference is the course notes, accessible below.  Students will be expected to master the material in these notes (and the quizzes are intended to encourage you to stay up-to-date).  Carefully studying the notes, including the worked examples at the end of the chapters, is essential for success in this class.  Do the reading before class and come prepared to ask questions about any confusing issues.  There are no required textbooks, only recommended supplemental texts.

While some of the homework exercises are typical textbook style problems, they are generally not of the variety “plug these numbers into Equation 6”, but rather the homework exercises focus on analyzing interesting, but often unfamiliar, physical systems using the principles and techniques discussed in this course (and its prerequisites).  The HW should be thought of as (the often requested) practice exams.



 

 

2014 Tentative syllabus

Week 1:   Introduction, Math Physics Review and Special Relativity
Week 2:   Spacetime physics
Week 3:   Relativistic dynamics

Week 4:   QM Review, Known particles and interactions
Week 5:   Quarks and mesons

Week 6:   Baryons

Week 7:   Symmetries

Week 8:   Isospin

Week 9:   Discrete symmetries
Week 10: Force carriers and the Standard Model

 

2014 (Spring) Class notes (link for the complete set with table of contents and index)


Preface
Chapter 0: Introduction
Chapter 1: Math methods
Chapter 2: Special relativity
Chapter 3: Minkowski spacetime

Chapter 4: Relativistic Dynamics
Chapter 5: QM and Angular Momentum
Chapter 6: Known particles
Chapter 7: Quarks and hadrons
Chapter 8: Symmetries

Chapter 9: Weak Interactions


Supplementary:

Chapter 10: Intro to Group Theory

Chapter 11: Young Diagrams and SU(N) Representations



 

 

2013 (Spring) Class notes (link for the complete set with table of contents and index)

 

Chapter 0: Introduction

Chapter 1: Special relativity

Chapter 2: Minkowski spacetime
Chapter 3: Relativistic Dynamics
Chapter 4: Known particles
Chapter 5: Quarks and hadrons
Chapter 6: Symmetries

Chapter 7: Weak Interactions

 

Supplementary

Chapter 10: Intro to Group Theory

Chapter 11: Young Diagrams and SU(N) Representations

 

 

Event with large missing
    (unobserved) energy from the Dzero experiment at Fermilab

 

2013 (Autumn) Class notes (using East Coast metric!)
Preface 
Chapter 0: Introduction

Chapter 1: Special relativity

Chapter 2: Minkowski spacetime

Chapter 3: Relativistic dynamics

Chapter 4: Known particles

Chapter 5: Quarks and hadrons

Chapter 6: Symmetries

Chapter 7: Weak Interactions

 

 

Grading

Muon neutrino event at Super-Kamiokande
There will be weekly homework assignments, one midterm, and a final exam. There will also be regular “clicker quizzes” during lecture. Grades will be based approximately 30% on homework, 10% on quizzes, 20% on the midterm, and 40% on the final.  The final exam is a required part of the course

HW must be turned-in (either in class or in prof. Ellis’ mailbox) by the end of class on the due date, typically a Friday (except for HW #1 that is due on the second Monday).  Late HW with a 50% discount in points is allowed if turned-in (in class or in my mailbox) by the end of class on the class-day following the original due date (so typically a Monday—note this does not apply to the last HW as there is no following class-day).  Hopefully we will have sufficient TA resources to allow graded and then corrected HW to be resubmitted for re-grading and increase in credit up to 80%.  The original HW plus reworked exercises (not including exercises performed fully correctly the first time) must be submitted by the first class-day after the initial graded HW is returned.  (Only exercises actually attempted the first time, can benefit from the 80% re-grade.  Otherwise the 50% limit holds.)

Scores on HW assignments and the MidTerm Exam can be seen on the Catalyst gradebook.  Post-midterm the column labeled Projected Score is calculated assuming that the average (percentage) scores on the remaining HW assignments are identical to those on the previous assignments and that the (percentage) grade on the Final Exam is identical to that on the MidTerm Exam.  The Projected Grade is a “flat” (i.e., not highly curved) mapping of the scores onto the range 0.0 to 4.0 such that the highest score yields a 4.0 grade and that passing (a grade of 2.0) comes from a score of approximately 40%.  This is just an estimate of the Final Grade.  The total score and the grading algorithm will “mature” as more information becomes available.  It is to everyone’s advantage to learn from the HW sets and do well on the Exams and quizzes.

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Prerequisites – successful completion of Phys 121-3, 225 (Quantum I) and 227 (Elementary Mathematical Physics I); Phys 228 is recommended.  We will briefly discuss the most relevant subjects from Phys. 227 and 225 in Lectures 1 and 5.  Students are also encouraged to review the content of all of Phys. 227 in the Lecture Notes from the last time I taught that course (2008), which are available here.

It is expected that students entering Phys 226 have some working knowledge of special relativity and quantum mechanics.  Some facility with the following is assumed: complex variables and complex arithmetic, harmonic (sines & cosines) and hyperbolic (sinh & cosh) functions, simple transformations represented by matrices operating on vectors or state vectors (including bras and kets), quantum numbers, eigenvalues and eigenstates (in the context of quantum mechanics), quantized spin in simple systems (e.g., spin ½ or related 2-state systems), symmetries and conserved quantum numbers.

For in-class use, students must have an H-ITT radio-frequency clicker, available new from the UBookstore, or sometimes used from sellers on Amazon or Ebay. Be sure to get the RF version: model TX3100 or TX3200.  Clicker quizzes will begin by the end of the first week of classes and occur regularly thereafter.

 

 

Textbooks

The course notes are the primary reference for this class, but these books may also be useful:
 
Introduction to Relativity by John B. Kogut
Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics by A. Das and T. Ferbel

 

 

Reading Assignments

Please read prior to the indicated week: (Note Monday May 26 is a holiday)

 

Week

Course notes

Textbooks

Mar 31 – Apr 4

chapters 0, 1 & 2

Kogut: chapter 1 & 2

Apr 7 – 11

chapter 3

Kogut: chapter 3 & 4

Apr 14 – 18

chapter 4 & 5

Kogut: chapter 4

Apr 21 – 25

chapter 5 & 6

Kogut: chapter 6, Das & Ferbel: sections 4.1-4.4 (don't worry about last 1.5 pages)

Apr 28 - May 2

chapter 7

Das & Ferbel: sections 9.1 - 9.4.3

May 5 - 9

Continue & Midterm

 

May 12 - 16

Finish chapter 7

Das & Ferbel: sections 9.4.4 - 9.8, 10.4

May 19 - 23

chapter 8

Das & Ferbel: section 10.5, chapter 11

May 28 - 30

finish 8 and start 9

Das & Ferbel  chapter 13

Jun 2 - 6

chapter 9

Das & Ferbel: sections 13.1 - 13.9

 

 

 

Homework Assignments  (assignments and solutions posted on Catalyst)

Problem Set #1     (Due Monday 4/7/14)

Problem Set #2     (Due Friday 4/11/14)

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Problem Set #3     (Due Friday 4/18/14)

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Problem Set #4     (Due Friday 4/25/14)

.

Problem Set #5      (Due Friday 5/2/14)

.

Problem Set #6      (Due Monday 5/12/14)

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Problem Set #7      (Due Friday 5/16/14)

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Problem Set #8      (Due Friday 5/23/14)

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Problem Set #9      (Due Friday 5/30/14)

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Problem Set #10    (Due Friday 6/6/14)    

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Exams

· Midterm: tentatively scheduled for Wednesday, May 7, 2014, in class (A118);  

· Final:  Wednesday, June 11, 2014 , 8:30 to 10:20 AM in A118;

Exams will be closed book, closed notes, but a summary sheet will be provided.
The final summary sheet is here.  Calculators (but not cellphones) allowed.

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Useful Resources

Particle Data Group: Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear Properties

Particle Data Group: Summary Tables of Particle Properties

Particle Adventure (a breezy interactive tour from the Particle Data Group)

The LHC (introductory videos)

Interactive Table of Nuclides from the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

Interactive Chart of Nuclides from the National Nuclear Data Center at BNL

 

1964 Messenger Lectures by Richard Feynman at
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/tools/tuva/index.html

 

 

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Aerial view of the south pole
    showing the IceCube neutrino experiment under construction

 

Superconducting RF cavity
    developed for the proposed International Linear Collider

 

Au+Au relativistic heavy ion collision
    observed by the STAR detector at RHIC