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Updated: Monday, April 12, 1999 10:49:56 AM

Intro to Psych Perspectives History & People
 Epistemology Bettelheim's Autism Scientific Method & Experiments
Experimental Termonology Neurotransmitters Neurotransmission
Anatomy of the Brain Split Brain Brain Imaging
Neural Plasticity Auditory System Visual System

Section 1: Epistemology

Ways of knowing  (in list, Italics = Non Method, bold = a method)
  1. Tenacity - by always knowing it to be true (not a method of knowing)
  2. Authority - Know it by going to a book, or a reference (not a method of knowing)
  3. Empiricism - knowledge through observation
  4. Intuition - having insight, gut feeling, knowing in a "flash" - mystical experiences.
  5. Reason - Logic  - Uses deduction and induction.
          Deduction - used to prove things - Flawless when followed using rules of logic
          Requires that your premises is correct
              All dogs are Animals
              Spot is a dog
              Spot is an animal - TRUE!
          Induction - Arguing from specific to General - "the problem of induction"
              Spot is a dog
              A dog is an animal
              All Animals are Dogs - FALSE!
Induction's other greatest problem is observed in the raven paradox - a scientist is wanting to prove that all ravens are black. So the scientist goes out and looks to find a raven, brings the bird back to the laboratory, and finds that it is completely black, and proves that it is a raven. However, through induction he must find all ravens in the entire world, the universe, parallel dimensions etc. Just one counter-instance would disprove the hypothesis.





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