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Updated: Monday, April 12, 1999 10:50:02 AM

Intro to Psych Perspectives History & People
 Epistemology Bettelheim's Autism Scientific Method & Experiments
Experimental Termonology Neurotransmitters Neurotransmission
Anatomy of the Brain Split Brain Brain Imaging
Neural Plasticity Auditory System Visual System

Section 1: Neurotransmission

Action Potential – an all or none signal. – a digital transmission like a CD – a 1 or a 0 nothing in-between.
Sodium-Potasium Pump - a pumping system in the cell which is an ATP dependent. – The body uses energy only to "bilge" the cell.  Removing the excess Sodium from the axon.
Myelin Sheath - The insulating layer of cells around many axons.
Nodes of Ranvier: The gaps between the individual insulating cells that serve to increase the speed of neurotransmission.
Synaptic GapThe space between the end of an axon and the beginning of the next dendrite
MAO (Monoamine Oxidase) breaks down


An MAO inhibitor prevents the breakdown of these neurotransmitters (therefore they are agonists to Dopamine; Norepinephrine; Serotonin)
    Taking MAO inhibitors Is used in depression, an agonist for the preceding neurotransmitters

Autonomic Nervous System:

Sympathetic Stimulation

Dilates pupil
Stimulates Salivary glands (weakly)
Lungs (relaxes)
Heart – accelerates heartbeat – strengthens contraction
Stomach – inhibits activity
Liver – stimulates glucose release by liver
Adrenal gland – secretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline
Stimulates ejaculation in the male

Parasympathetic Stimulation

Contracts pupil
Stimulates Stimulates salivation (strongly)
Constricts bronchi
Slow heartbeat
Stimulates activity of stomach
Stimulated gall bladder
Contracts bladder
Stimulates erection in the male

More Motor Neuron Information

Speed for the: Human reactions are slow because the transmission is both chemical (neurotransmitters) and electrical (Ion Movement).
Conventional Electricity [electron movement] is much faster than Ionic movement

Electricity is the movement of charge, therefore, Ionic movement is considered electricity because an ion is a charged atom that moves.





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