He put cats in "puzzle boxes", and
the cats would have to learn how to escape.
- The reinforcer would be the cat breaking
If an action brings a reward then the action
becomes stamped into the mind. Behavior is
changed because of its consequences.
Law of Effect:
consequences become more
likely, and behaviors
followed by unfavorable
consequences become less
Perhaps one of the
most famous psychologist
to ever lived. He worked
with rats in
He trained a rat to do a wide variety of
tasks: the most basic task was pressing a
bar to obtain a reward of food. Once the rat
learned how to press a bar, the rat can be
taught to only press the bar when presented
with other complex stimuli.
Using this situation it is possible
to measure how well the rat perceives, learns
and remembers, therefore, many psychological
variables can be investigated in rats.
- Subjects associate their behaviors with their
consequences, thus they became more likely to repeat
rewarded (reinforced) behaviors and less likely
to repeat punished behaviors.
Reinforcer increases the likely
hood of a response. Primary or secondary
reinforcers can be delayed or immediate.
(innate) food, relief
from pain (a negative
not necessary, something
that can be traded in for
a primary Reinforcer
Much more effective than
Example: It is better to
add a dollar to a piggy bank toward a bicycle
every time the child brings home a good grade,
rather than waiting until the end of the year,
and if the child
has a good GPA, then giving the bicycle. Immediate
reinforcement is better than delayed reinforcement
perhaps because the child is not able to keep
the goal in his or her mind without being
regularly rewarded for the the desired behavior.
decreases the likelihood
of a response.
However - For some
children, being yelled at may be seen as reinforcement.
Although parents perceive yelling to be a form
of punishment, a child may find this a positive
reinforcer because the child is looking for
procedure which rewards the animal, gradually
guiding its behavior toward a desired behavior
Imagine that you want to condition a rat to
press a bar. You might give the rat food every
time it comes close to the bar, then start narrowing
down the reward area until the rat only receives
a reward when it touches the bar. Eventually
you only give rewards when the rat pulls the
bar all the way down.
The animal does something that you did not
intend for it to do, but it also does the thing
that you want, a compound action. For
example, the rat hits it's head on the wall
before it hits the bar, therefore making the
rat think it needs to hit it's head and push
the bar to receive a reward. In humans
this is observed in such behavior as the expression
of "knock-on-wood" thinking
that the phrase will increase the likelihood
of a favorable outcome.
If you use techniques too much, a person who
would have done something for their own satisfaction,
then does something simply for the food/money.
||Positive Punishment also called
||Negative Punishment also called
During learning you reinforce
them all the time, after
learning, you transfer them to a
schedule of reinforcement.