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Updated: Monday, April 12, 1999 10:50:14 AM

Schemas & Just world Belief Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory
Confidence and Memory Heuristics Attribution
Norms Social Influence & Obedience All Notes in one view

Section 2: Long Term Memory

Types of Long Term Memory

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Memories are not stored in a single part of the brain. They stored globally across the brain.

The hippocampus is important for transferring declarative memory from short-term memory to long-term memory, but not for procedural memories (e.g., riding a bike).

Anterograde amnesia is memory loss of any memories after the onset of the amnesia. For example, if someone has damage to the hippocampus. They may have difficult forming new memories, but they will be able to remember the memories formed before the damage to the hippocampus.

Retrograde amnesia
is the memory loss of memories formed prior to the onset of the amnesia.

Temporal lobes contain the hippocampus…

From the movie

He lives in the moment, i.e., moment to moment consciousness. Everything before and after doesn’t exist. He’s newly awake for the first time every day. He always thinks that he has been awake for 2 minutes. As you talk to him, he does not remember the last sentence.

The infection usually starts in another origin, then goes to the brain – hippocampus.

The serial position of words in a list you are trying to remember is important.

Typically the first words (primacy effect) and the last words (recency effect) will be remembered more often than the words in the middle.

We forget things because we are constantly leaning things…

Proactive & Retroactive Interference

Whether interference is proactive or retroactive is determined by when the material that is interfering occurs.  If the memory that interferes comes before it is proactive, it it comes after, it is retroactive.

Proactive interference
Learning A ---------> Learning B --------> Forget B

Retroactive Interference
Learning A ---------> Learning B --------> Forget A


Time 1

Time 2



Study French

Study Spanish

Recall Spanish

French proactively interferes

Study French

Study Spanish

Recall French

Spanish retroactively interferes

If you learn something, then you sleep, you have a chance of retaining 60% more information. Rather if you were to stay awake, you would be constantly bringing in new information. Thus causing more interference.

visual_stimulus.jpg (4411 bytes)

"Forgetting curve." Ebbing house’s curve, says that we forget most of our information right away, same on any scale!

Seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, years. (remaining with the same scale of 100 percent of the original information.)

Context specific memory. If the context matches, you get better remembering.

State specific memory. If the state is the same, the memory will improved.

Method of Loci – used by the Greeks who determined that it was a good enhancer of memory.
          Better than a strategy of repetition

Recalled: Radio, Pencil, Wire, Bean, Flower, Table, Piano, Necktie, Sock, Hammer, Penny
Recall: Glass

Necessary for memory
Imagery –
Organization –
Example memorizing
Types of amnesia
                    Allows you to memorize that there are 3 types of amnesia…
Sleep – time during which memories are consolidated          

Long term potentiation:

The brain is constantly changing. The connections that one has now, are not the same as last week. Unfortunately whole nerve cells don’t re-grow. Rather dendrites can change.

The brain does not take a snapshot of an event. Rather it takes enough information from the event, stores it in memory, then when one tries to recall the event, the brain synthesizes the event.

          Source Amnesia
                    Source 1 – Watched a movie
                    Source 2 – Read the news paper
                              Source 2 & 1 will result in 1 memory.
                    Condition 1: (there will be misinformation) –
the race, the number of suspects, and the store, and the street
Black, three, drug, elm
Condition 2: (neutral information)

2X2 Plot

There doesn’t seem to be a relationship between people’s confidence of what they know, and what they actually know. 






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