is little or no relationship
between witness confidence and
Confidence affects the decisions
18% conviction rate, just on
then add one eye witness, the
conviction rate goes up to 72%
In a picture line-up, even without the
perpetrator, the victim will still pick someone.
Later with a second line-up with the
perpetrator, the witness will stay with their original
choice instead of picking the real perpetrator.
Paradigm - model for
She studies memory and has the view that repressed
memories are unlikely because the primary cause
of forgetting is not repression; rather it is
due to other factors (e.g., interference, decay)
and not because we want
to forget the event/memory.
To explain why people believe in memories that
never existed, she developed a paradigm in which
she implants the memory of being lost in a shopping
mall in people (young adults) who were never
lost in a mall.
She has found that she is able to implant the
memory in some of participants in her study.
She argues that a similar process may occur
in some sexual abuse cases. Memories of sexual
abuse may be implanted by the therapist. For
example, the therapist may say:
"are you sure that you werent
sexually abused, you may be suppressing these
feelings. That would explain why you are having
After analyzing transcripts of therapy sessions,
she noted that some therapists suggest memories
to the clients in a way that may be very conducive
to forming false memories.