Intergenerational Effects

Intergenerational Effects:

1) Genetic
2) Nongenetic

Preconception effects that are nongenetic are:
    1) Cultural
     2) Nongenetic familial


T
he
womb environment can effect several generations. (of the mother -->daughter--->grand daughter etc.)

  • In a series of experiments with rats, pregnant rats were either subjected to stress or no stress. Stress was induced by handling the rats.    After birth, the offspring of the mothers who were stressed will do less exploration.
  • Then the daughters of the stressed mothers produced daughters whose children also did less exploration than control rants, even though  no stress was added to the gestation process.  This is an example of a nongenetic familial intergenerational effect.
  • Nongenetic familial intergenerational effects on glucose metabolism that are  relevant to diabetes have been found in rats.  This research has implications for the development human diabetes.
  • The development of the physiological processes that control glucose metabolism occur during late fetal development in the human.  In the rat, however, these processes develop just after birth.  Manipulating the amount of glucose in the blood of an infant rat is similar to manipulating the amount of glucose in the blood of a human fetus.  It is therefore relatively easy to do research on these physiological processes in rats that correspond to human fetal development.
Quick Note: Insulin is responsible for the metabolism of glucose.   Diabetics suffer from an insulin deficiency and abnormal glucose metabolism
In an experiment we are given a Female Rat...
   This young female rat is over fed, and subsequently becomes over weight, no big surprise!, however, the animal's glucose metabolism also changes.  If the offspring of this rat is female, then her children will also show an altered glucose metabolism compared to control rats,  very surprising!  If this female rat also has children, they will become over weight due to altered glucose metabolism.  That is, a change in glucose metabolism in this rat's grandmother affected her glucose metabolism 2 generations later.

Another Insulin Example:

Who: Native American Pima Community
Location: Arizona
What: The Pima Indians developed difficulty with insulin.
               50% of the community now has diabetes

      Beans were the primary food, but when other food was introduced the people's insulin was thrown very off, and they now suffer from diabetes.   Why is this situation even more serious than it might appear?

Remember the previous experiment with the rats, where the grandmothers were overfed grandmothers resulted in diabetic and over weight grandchildren

This would make us suspect familial intergenerational effects on insulin metabolism in the pima Indians' future, even if they were able to change their diet now!

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Birthing Process in a nut shell

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Prenatal Effects:

Conception
Zygote (2 weeks) [50% are lost]
Embryo
Fetus (2 months)

At about the 8 month period you acquire sensitivity to light and sound

The Birthing process - you wouldn't believe who's in control!

The exact time that the mother begins to have contractions is usually determined by the child.

The infant effectively changes the hormones which causes the mother to contract in direct response to the child's kicking effect. (only when the child sensitizes the mother's uterus)


Postnatal

Neonatal (up to 3 months)
Infant up to 3 years
Child 3-12
Adolescent 12-16
Adult
Aging

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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Alcohol affects both body and brain… .
     Babies with fetal alcohol syndrome have, temper tantrums and perceptual disorders.

Physical Manifestations:

  • Affects cell migration early in development, therefore,
  • Brain density is reduced, the cavities in the brain are larger.

Other potential Causes for Birth Defects:

  • Many drugs besides alcohol may be risky to take during pregnancy. Also while breast feeding the child is exposed to the same drugs as the mother.
  •  Also saunas with pregnant mothers don’t mix…Saunas during pregnancy are contraindicated (inadvisable) because the heat adversely affects the developing fetus.

Other fetal alcohol syndrome Facts:
  • Soviet union has higher levels of fetal alcohol syndrome than many other countries.
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome was first discovered at the university of Washington
  • The psychology department has investigated fetal alcohol syndrome using animal models:
    This research has shown that even small amounts of alcohol can develop deficits in learning ability of animals.  Therefore it is unwise to drink ANY alcohol during pregnancy.
  • The fetus is most susceptible to damage from alcohol during the first trimester of pregnancy.

 

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Cognitive development

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Postnatal Development

2-3 months of age, the child does not cry as much and begins to babble. Babies are biologically prepared to learn new information.
The baby is continuously learning and begins to understand/realize and respond to environmental changes.


Habituation – if you show the baby the same thing over and over again, he becomes bored, that means that the baby remembers information.


Within six weeks a baby can grasp abstract angular positions. In another words a baby would become bored with a similar angle if it is simply repositioned, so long as the angle is the same, but when the angle changes from an acute to an obtuse angle, the baby becomes interested, and takes note of this change.  Therefore, it can be concluded that a child can understand the concept of an angle by 6 weeks.


LANGUAGE:
 

When people are extremely young, they have the ability to learn language really easily.

 

The relationship between age at arrival in the United States and total score on the test of English grammar (from Johnson & Newport)


Piaget

studied schemas in children

Schemas -
        Learning through assimilation - integrating a concept into a preexisting schema
        Leaning through accommodation - adjust a schema to accept new information


Stages - of cognitive development

Typical age range

Description of stage

Developmental Phenomena

Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor

Experiencing the world through senses and actions

(touching, looking, mouthing)

  • Object permanence
  • Stranger anxiety
About 2 to 6 years Preoperational

Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning

  • Pretend to play
  • Egocentrism
  • Language development
    Large vocabulary accumulation
About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational
  • Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
  • Conservation of
    Numbers
  • Mathematical transformations
About 12 through adulthood Formal operational

Abstract reasoning

  • Abstract logic
  • Potential for mature moral reasoning

Piaget, discovered that children really have their own thought processes


For example, take the video in which the experimenter lined up 3 equal length sticks like this: (pic 1)

Pic 1

Then asking the child which one is longest, middle, and shortest, the child will say that the stick on the left is longest, and the one in the middle is "the middle" stick and the one on the right is the shortest.

WHY?, The child has a different way of perceiving the relationship between the sticks – possibly like the illustration on the right.

Pic. 2



Person permanence develops before object permanence (illustrated in Class film)


Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning…
In Europe there was a woman who was about to die, there was a man who made a medication that could cure the woman, her husband tried to round up money, but was unable to even get what the inventor of the medication was asking for, he pleaded with the man to sell the medication for a lesser amount, but he wouldn’t budge. So then he decided to steal the medication…

Is this morally right?

Whether he is or not is not important, but the reasoning being the answer determines the moral stage of development.


(1) Post conventional Level
(May develop from adolescence on)
Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles

(2) Conventional Level
(Develops during late childhood and early adolescence)
Morality of law and social rules to gain approval or avoid disapproval

(3) Pre-Conventional level
(develops during early childhood)
Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards.

 

Hint, hint, THIS WILL be on the test, so, given someone’s attitude during a action, determine which level they were acting on.

 

Post conventional reasoning is the highest form of moral reasoning is controversial

 

 

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Parenting

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Parenting
  • Authoritarian – Very strict rules, with the no reason or the simple reason: "I said so"
  • Permissive – Very liberal parents
  • Rejecting/neglecting – don’t care what the child does or doesn’t do.
  • Authoritative* – demanding, but with reasons. And as the child gets older, the child participate in rule making.

* = the most effective form of parenting

    Research that has concluded that authoritative parenting results in the greatest social competency and self-reliance, was found through correlational research rather than experimental research. See section 1 about experimental methods if you have any questions.

    These studies by themselves cannot determine whether the self-reliance of the child is causing the parents to use an authoritative parenting style, or whether the authoritative parenting style of the parents is causing the self-reliance of the child.

    It is also possible that a third variable such as parental education could be causing the higher self-reliance in the child rather than the actual parenting style itself.

    However, because the authoritative parenting style preserves self esteem, (see discussion below) it is likely that this style foster socially competent behavior in children.

authoritativeparents.gif (18537 bytes)

 


The Experience Of Choice Is Essential For The Child To Develop Self Esteem And Social Competence.


Learned helplessness – When the child is punished no matter what, the child believes that .. no matter what they do, they will always be punished, therefore he or she learns to act in a helpless manner.  Learned helplessness has been shown to cause depression.

Natural consequences - When a child does something that they have been told not to, and "mother nature" steps in, with consequences directly  related to the action.

Children learn from natural consequences

However, sometimes when natural consequences are too dangerous, or too distant, or when no natural consequences will not occur, the parent must step in with logical consequences.


Logically consequences are what should be created by the parents when a child violates family or social values.

Logical consequences are consequences that the parent constructs that is logically related to the behavior that the child does. - if the child does not dress in time, he/she could be inconvenienced by changing in the car.

Children have a tendency to test to see if the parents will be consistent.

Logically Consequences are different from punishment, the differences are that the child is actually given a choice, to which they can say no to one of the alternatives. The key point is that they are able to CHOOSE.

Make sure that the logical consequence is directly related to the misbehavior…
    A punishment does not typically directly relate to the misbehavior.


It is this experience of choice that empowers the child and results in greater self reliance and self esteem.


Attachment
Study by Harry Harlow
   Study tests the relative attachment a baby monkey has to either a cloth surrogate or a wire surrogate mother

Previously it was believed that the monkey would seek the wire mother for security because it was the supplier of food

Harlow was able to disprove this theory with his test which showed that the monkey would seek the cloth mother when ever it felt insecure or threatened due to the softness and comfort.


Because Harlow's monkeys were dolls they were unresponsive.  The babies raised with these unresponsive mothers, especially with unresponsive wire mothers, were unable to care for their own children.  Moreover, they were unable to mate, rather they had to be artificially impregnated, and even after giving birth they murdered their own offspring.



FACT:
Abused children are 4x as likely to become abusive to their children, this is not surprising given the effects Harlow observed in monkeys.

The following behavior is observed at the Age of 1 year (Approximately 13 months) [HUMANS]

Separation anxiety peeks at about 13 months. – upset when mother leaves room.

Securely attached – explores the environment in the presence of the mother.  If the mother leaves the child will become distressed, then on her return, the child will then welcome the mother.

Insecurely attached – The child is explores less, even in the mother's presence, when the mother leaves the child is very distraught.  When the mother returns, the child is indifferent or remain upset.


    Of relationships with mothers...
            ...60% of children are securely attached
                        And
            ...40% of children are insecurely attached

Notes From Movie:

Types of Babies

  • The exploring babies have a particular relationship with their mother. These babies only go back to the mother, to make sure that "she’s there" -
    This baby develops from a relaxed mother who is available when the baby needs comfort/security
  • The other type of baby is a nervous and anxiety prone baby.
    This type of baby develops from a mother who likes to keep their babies out of harms way, is an over protective mother.

Reactive baby - a timid or easily irritated baby

Behavior is inherited- but it can be changed?

There was an experiment which involved cross fostering where the reactive babies were adopted by the relaxed mothers to see if the babies would become more bold.  This experiment was successful so long as the reactive infant is near the relaxed mother, as soon as the mother disappears the baby can revert back to the reactive behavior.


(Human) Children who are "highly reactive" at birth, are typically insecure attachment at 13 months

Can attachment (secure vs insecure) be influenced by the mother's behavior?

In an experiment was conducted to answer this question.  From a group of mothers and their new born infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions.  In one condition the mothers were allowed to raise their infants, in the way they the normally would.    The other half the mothers were trained as how to be especially responsive to their babies.

 

The results of the experiment were that:

of the trained mothers 68% of the babies became securely attached whereas...

of the untrained mothers, only 28% became securely attached.


These results indicate that there are both genetic as well as non genetic influences on a baby's attachment style.

  

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Love Styles

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Types of Love/Amour/Romance

The difference in romantic and erotic love, and motherly love,
is that in romantic love 2 people are trying to fuse together,
in motherly love2 people are trying to break a part.

Types of love –

Mania – (Possessive love) The Greeks called it ‘theia mania’ or a ‘madness from the Gods.’ This style is intense, irrational, and often painful. The manic lover is consumed by the beloved, needs constant contact and reassurance, and is overcome with jealousy or despair if love is threatened. The manic over lover often feels that "I’m nobody unless somebody loves me."

Eros – an immediate powerful attraction, a fascination by the image of the beloved as a vision of ideal beauty, and a hint of recognition of your one true love; these are some of the aspects of Eros. Sexual intimacy occurs early in this style and erotic lovers delight in strong mutual sexual attraction. However, the erotic lovers wants total intimacy at all levels; emotional and social as well as physical.

Ludus – love as a game or an enjoyable pastime was developed by the Roman Poet, Ovid who wrote, The Art of Love. Love is fun, but the ludic lover does not want to get too involves. Multiple lovers and various distancing maneuvers are some of the strategies used in the game of love. The ideas is for mutual enjoyment without anyone getting serious and the ludic lover tries to play the game with honor.

Pragma – love with a shopping list. The lover must be compatible and posses certain required characteristics. Computer dating is an example of the pragmatic approach attempting to pair people based on compatible personalities, similar interests, and similar backgrounds. This compassionate form of love usually begins with very little passion or sexual intimacy although once a bond has been formed, more intense emotional intimacy may evolve.

Storge – an affectionate and stable form of love like in the story where the boy marries the girl next door. While sex occurs late in the relationship, storgic lovers often consider sex as an intimate self-disclosure or communication between friends. Storgic love becomes naturally as a consequence of shared activities, similarities, and the passage of time.

Agape – Universal love given without a thought about gain or reciprocity. C.S. Lewis called it Gift-Love because this style is characterized by an emphasis on loving rather than being loved. Agape is also unconditional, the lover does not have to earn it, it is a love that is always gentle, kind, patient, enduring, never jealous, never demanding.

 

IMPORTANT INFORMATION!!!

Note: Self expansion is defined by the incorporation of information from the other person in the relationship into one's own self.

According to one theory, love involves the expansion of one's self.

The best way to keep love fresh is to make sure that each person grows at, at least a similar rate! Otherwise, once you have learned everything about the other person, love tends to wane.

 

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Sex

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The sex drive
  • animals seek out, approach and copulate
  • the hypothalamus
  • male sex drive in animals
      - Medial preoptic area
      - testosterone receptors have been isolated here
  • Female sex drive in animals
       - ventromedial area

Hormonal Effects After puberty
  • For males:
    Testosterone is need to maintain sex drive
       - Castration reduces sex drive
       - Injection of testosterone restores sex drive
       - Adding testosterone to the medial preoptic area restores sex drive
  • For female nonhuman animals
      - Estrogen and progesterone is needed to maintain sex drive
  • For human females
      - Estrogen and progesterone are not needed to maintain sex drive
      - Testosterone (produced by adrenals) increases sex drive

Testosterone controls sexual motivation, but men are not the only ones with it because it is also secreted by the adrenal gland, not just the testes.


Given the dependent and independent variables below, can you predict the result of the following experiment?


Independent variables
  1. Males
  2. Females
  1. Sexually explicit materials
  2. Clothed individuals kissing and touching

Dependent variables:

Psychological Measures of arousal
Physiological measures of arousal


Physiological sexual arousal was measured for both men and women while they watched explicit pornographic videos.  The same group was measured for sexual arousal when watching videos of softcore videos: kissing & touching.

While watching Explicit videos:
  Were men aroused more than men?
  Were were women arouse more than women?
  Or, were they equally aroused?

Results:

The only difference found between men and women was the gender of the person they were attracted to.

Women, like men, were more sexually aroused by the sexually explicit material, than the 'softcore' material (Clothed individuals kissing and touching)


Sexual orientation

Homosexual behavior has been observed in all investigated mammalian species.

Prenatal effects due to exposure to testosterone

We all start out as females.

Physical Sexual development for the male does not occur until the fetus produces testosterone, from the testes.

This occurs at around 2 months from conception.

Testosterone turns on the development of the sexual organs.

Therefore an embryo which has a testosterone deficiency develops as a female, even if it is a genetically a male.  But by the age of puberty, the genetic male, physically female, when exposed to the testosterone emitted by the body during adolescents, undergoes a spontaneous physical sexual change from female characteristics to male characteristics.

 


Hypothalamus
– responsible for thirst, hunger, and general drives – sexual drives in particular for our sturdy.


For this portion of the brain, (the hypothalamus)  the homosexual man is similar to that of a woman.

66% of mothers homosexuals recall stress during pregnancy
33% for bisexuals
10% for heterosexuals.


The incidence of male homosexuality is more than double that of a female.
Later born, 2nd, 3rd or what have you, have a tendency to have less exposure to the mother’s testosterone then the first born.

    Professor Gunter Doorner (East Berlin) studied the effect of stress on pregnant rats. Stress effects the womb’s environment,  stressed animals produced more adrenaline (adrenaline inhibits the testosterone in the fetus).  Depending upon when this occurs during gestation, different aspects of sexual development can be effected. One aspect is sexual orientation, that is, male rats that are denied testosterone during certain stages of fetal development behave as females during adulthood.  Conversely, females who are given testosterone during fetal development behave like males during adulthood.  This is likely due to male-female differences in the sexual differentiation of the brain.   That is, the female brain is slightly different than the male brain.

Movie Topic: Homosexuality:
Is it born or breed?

Homosexuality's Genetic Component


Male occurrences being gay.

Identical twin studies state that the probability is 52%
Fraternal twin is gay, then your probability is 22%
11% rate of adoptive non-related sibling becoming/being gay.

Female occurrences being gay.

Identical twin studies state that the probability is 48%
Fraternal twin is gay, then your probability is 16%
?(unknown)% rate of adoptive non-related sibling becoming/being gay.

Recent research shows homosexual behavior is associated with specific x-linked genes.

If your uncle is homosexual, your probability of being gay goes up, but only  if it is your mother’s brother, rather than your father's brother, because the gene found to be related to a homosexual orientation is transferred by the X chromosome.   See the following Article: Science, 1993


Original Journal-Article on the Discovery of Genetic Basis of Homosexuality
Journal-Article: A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation.
Authors: Hamer,-Dean-H.; Hu,-Stella; Magnuson,-Victoria-L.; Hu,-Nan; et-al
Publication Information: Science, 1993 Jul; Vol 261(5119): 321-327.
    Investigated the role of genetics in male sexual orientation by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these Ss, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage analysis of a selected group of 40 families in which there were 2 gay brothers and no indication of nonmaternal transmission revealed a correlation between homosexual orientation and the inheritance of polymorphic markers on the X chromosome in approximately 64% of the sib-pairs tested. The linkage to markers on Xq28, the subtelomeric region of the long arm of the sex chromosome, indicated a statistical confidence level of more than 99% that at least 1 subtype of male sexual orientation is genetically influenced. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) .

For more information See the following book
Title: The science of desire: The search for the gay gene and the biology of behavior. (hardcover)
Author: Hamer,-Dean-H.; Copeland,-Peter
Publication information: New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster, Inc. (1994). 272 pp.

Abstract:
(from the jacket) In "The Science of Desire," [the author] explains the thinking behind his study [of a gene marker linked to male homosexuality], how the experiments were actually carried out, and what the discovery means. /// [This book] expands on [the author's] history-making research to explore the scientific, social, and ethical issues raised by his findings. He explains why the old "nature versus nurture" dichotomy is a false one, why the discovery of a genetic link doesn't mean that everyone with the gene will be gay or that everyone who is gay has the gene, and how the gene might act through personality traits such as independence and self-reliance. Dr. Hamer also addresses such tough questions as whether it would be possible or ethical to test in utero for the gay gene and whether genetic manipulation could or should be used to alter a person's sexuality; how a gay gene could have survived evolution; and why the discovery of this 1st genetic link to a human behavior is so important for the future of genetic research--and of mankind. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) . 


Simon Levey -

Gay researcher who investigated anatomical differences in the hypothalamus between homosexuals males, heterosexuals males and heterosexual females.

  • He found that an area of the anterior hypothalamus was larger in heterosexual males than in homosexual males. The size of this area was similar between homosexual males and heterosexual females.
  • This demonstrates that there are anatomical differences between some homosexual and heterosexual males. 
  • Because this is a correlational study , we do not know if homosexual behavior causes these difference or if these differences cause homosexuality.  Simon Levey strongly believes that these anatomical differences are are a cause rather than a result of homosexual behavior.

Kinsy Scale

1 – 7 scale, fraternal twins could rate completely opposite than the other.
There are other factors in sexual orientation, than just simply genetics, for example culture.


Different cultural views on Homosexuality

Many primitive cultures do not possess the concept of "homosexuality"
There is simply diversity in sexual expression


The occurrence of sequential bisexuality* in some cultures indicates that homosexual behavior can also be culturally determined.

* Sequential Bisexuality - instances when members of a culture are nearly exclusively homosexual for a time followed by  heterosexual behavior.


Marind Anim of New Guinea

  • At the age of six, the father chooses an adult male child
  • From 12-16 adolescence has several male lovers
  • Opposite sex marriages are arranged.


Batak of Northern Sumatra

  • children view as sexual at age 6
  • 6-16 years of age same sex activity is encourages
  • Adolescents best friend describes sexual prowess of his mate to convince the girl and her parents that he would be a good mate.

 

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FREUD
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Freud in Perspective
Pic of Freud

1856-1939

 

About Freud:

  • Born in Friburg Czechoslovakia in 1856 & moved to to Vienna Austria when he was 3.

  • Attained his MD after concentrated study in physiology, then turned his attention to psychiatry.

  • Freud's theories were based upon the case studies of the patients he encountered.
       He did not use the scientific method to verify his findings.

  •    Although his theories are unquestionably fascinating, many aspects of his theories lack scientific support. (verification).  However, no other investigator of human psychology has proposed theories as grand and all encompassing as Freud's theories.  Even today, his writings are inspiring if not totally accurate.

  •    When Freud was 28, he used cocaine, he also prescribed cocaine to his patients and friends. It was only later that Freud realized how addictive cocaine was.  After one of his friends died of cocaine abuse, he publicly withdrew his support of the medical benefits of cocaine.  Although Freud never seemed to be especially addicted to cocaine, he was addicted to nicotine.  Freud continued to smoke cigars heavily (20 per day) even after being diagnosed with oral cancer.

  •    In 1939 his books were burned in his homeland, and he barely escaped Nazi Germany in 1939 with his life, his 2 sisters died in concentration camps during World War II.  Freud died shortly after fleeing.  He chose to end his life with a doctor assisted suicide.  His cancer had reached the point where he had asked his physician to administer a lethal dose of morphine.  Freud Died peacefully in England, 1939.

  • Fore More information See the Library of Congress's Freud Exhibit
    or Read: Civilization and it’s Discontents, by Freud


Freud distinguished between latent content and manifestcontent:

    Grato’s Joke:

Grato asks a John, "Are you married?"
John: "Yes, happily married"
Grato: "Do you have any children?"
John: "Yes, 9, and one more on the way."
Grato: "Well, how many years have you been married?"
John: "10"
Grato: taken aback: "10 years, 10 children!!!"
John: "I love my wife very much."
Grato: "Yes, well, I love my cigar, but I take it out of my mouth once in a while!"


Primary Process = Unconscious processes of the Id (Dreams, free-association, right brain, irrational)
            The unconscious is the Id


Secondary process = conscious processes of the Ego (rational)

ego.gif (2873 bytes)


How a human mind is like an iceberg

canducmind.gif (10815 bytes)

 

Defense mechanisms reduce conflict between id and ego by means of disguise

Repression Pushing anxiety-producing information into the unconsciousness
Reaction formation Repressed thoughts appear as mirror opposite
Regression Tendency to go back to an earlier stage of personality
Rationalization Real motivation for behavior is not accepted by ego
Displacement Motive not acceptable in one form is acceptable in another form
Projection Perceiving the external world in terms of one[s own personal conflict.
Identification If you can't bet them join them.  If you can't eliminate your father, than you can identify with him/become like him. (in reference to the Oedipus Complex)
Sublimation Base impulses (example: sex and aggression) are transformed into socially acceptable achievements.

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

Oral
(0 to 18 months)
Oral pleasures – sucking, biting, chewing
Anal
(18 to 36 months)
anal pleasures; coping with demands for control.
Phallic
(3 to 6 years)
genitals, coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Oedipus Complex
latency
(6 to puberty)
Repressed sexual feelings
Genital
(puberty on)
Maturation of sexual interests

Possible example of reaction formation

ARTICLE:

Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal

   The authors investigates the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who admitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homophobic men (n = 35) and a group of non-homophobic men (n=29), they were assigned to groups on the bias of their scores on the index of homophobia. The men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian video, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. They also completed an aggression questionnaire. Both groups exhibited increases in penile circumference to the heterosexual and female homosexual videos,. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. The groups did not differ in aggression. Homophobia is apparently associated with homosexual arousal and homophobic individual in either unaware of denies.

Catharsis:
            Recalling the experiences that caused a neurosis
Libido
            Life energy, sexual energy.

Civilization and it’s Discontents, by Freud
  1. Thanatos (death instinct, aggression) is bound to
    Eros (life instinct, libido, sex.

  2. Aggression and civilization are incompatible.


All of man’s misery stems from the conflict between civilization and man’s basic aggressiveness.
(This argument is developed in Freud’s book : Civilization and is Discontents.")


        Man’s outward aggression is introjected (internalized) as the super ego directed against the ego
        Civilization’s norms are introjected and their violations are punished by the feeling of guilt.
        Neurosis is the result of this conflict.

Bonobo – species of ape which "makes love" in reaction to conflict.

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Rhythms, Sleep & Dreaming

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Types of Biological rhythms:

Circadian– about 24 hours

Ultradian – less than 24 hours


To measure these rhythms, monitor:

an important circadian rhythm is the core body temperature

Core Body temperature varies together with Alertness and is responsible for jet lag

Temperature also affects the speed of neurotransmission


Zeitgeber:
Time cue

free run rhythm

about 25 hours.


Free running rhythm -
  • a rhythm that is not controlled by time cues.
  • 1 hour is added to the normal 24 hour day making the body's natural rhythm 25 hours causing the free running day to drift 1 hour behind each day in 'normal' time, that is after 24 days, you would be waking at the same time as everyone else but 1 day behind them.

Pineal Gland

Secretes Melatonin

        Amount affected by:

        Light (suppresses melatonin)
        Magnetic fields


Circadian rhythm – (arousal rhythm)

3 weeks to change rhythm

   That is, it would take 3 weeks to completely overcome jetlag.

Melatonin can help you make the transition smoother and quicker when taken both prior to and during the trip.   Melatonin could be taken at the time of night during which it would usually be secreted when you are in the new time zone that you are flying to.

It is best to remain with the same work schedule, because once the circadian rhythm is set it takes 3 weeks to readjust a rhythm.  The first 2 weeks is when the majority of this change takes place. 

Within in the First 2 weeks you are trying to be active while your body is gearing down for sleep, and you are gearing down for sleep when your body is preparing to become active.

If you must work on a rotating shift schedule, then schedule changes should be at least 3 week apart, and in a clockwise fashion: that is from night shift to morning shift to evening shift.


Derived From Movie:

    1 in 4 working men and 1 in 6 working women have a rotating shift schedule

 

The Architecture of sleep.
cps = Cycles Per Second
Frequency = Cycles Per Second (high frequency = more cps)
Amplitude = Level of voltage

Brain wave patterns during various stages of awakens& Sleep
Awake:

Awake – low amplitude, high frequency, irregularly shaped wave
Relaxed – 8-12cps – alpha waves, regular - smooth

Asleep

Stage 1 Sleep – 3-7 cps theta waves
Stage 2 Sleep – Stage 2 sleep is slower and has a higher voltage than stage 1 sleep (with occasional sort abrupt 12-14 cps sleep spindles and K complexes)
Delta sleep – High amplitude and low frequency: to 2 cps – delta waves > 75 mv
REM - Low amplitude and High Frequency random, fast with saw tooth waves (somewhat similar to waking)


EEG =
electroencephalogram
EMG = electromyogram
EOG = Electroculogram
REM - Rapid eye movement – darting back and forth

During REM, the muscles undergo paralysis, that is the muscles near the trunk of the body.
    Prevents you from hurting your self if you were to act out your dreams.

Architecture Of Sleep –

sleep.gif (10732 bytes)

IMPORTANT: You should know this graph well enough that you could draw it by heart.

For Example Notice...


Importance of Slow Wave Sleep & REM Sleep

 

Sleep Disorders

Sleep Apnea – happens in the lowest point of sleep – 3-4th stage. They stop breathing, thus waking them up, depriving them of slow wave sleep.
Narcolepsy – REM sleep disorder – happens during REM sleep. You fall asleep at inappropriate times.
Night Terrors – Stage 3-4 sleep - High anxiety during sleep
Nightmares - occur diromg REM sleep
Crib death - is thought to be related to sleep apnea.
Asian death syndrome – immigrants who lived in an Asian culture and immigrated to the US (typically young men in their 20’s) simply died in their sleep –key note:  they have no family.  Somehow this was believed to be related to some kind of sleep apnea, perhaps a genetic sleep apnea that would be set off by stress, and without friends.to offer social support, while in a stressful, foreign environment.
Myoclonis – sleep muscle spasm – happens often during REM sleep
Sleep walking happens in 3 & 4.

Insomnia

Subjective insomnia – thinking that they actually lay in bed awake, then sleep, then wake up not knowing that they are actually sleeping.

Objective insomnia - True insomnia

To overcome Insomnia:

  • Don’t take stimulants after 3pm-ish, i.e.
    Don’t take caffeine - Coke, Coffee, Chocolate, Tea
  • Always get up at the same time every day
  • Don’t lie in bed when you’re awake.
    You should not condition yourself to make your bed an "awake" cue

Yet another Random Note:
    Napping is considered to be beneficial

Morning Naps Contain REM periods, afternoon/evening naps contain Slow Wave periods.       

IF deprived of sleep, people, rats, dogs, animals… will die.

REM deprived person, results in REM Rebound… this is longer REM periods, and more dense (higher frequency of Rapid Eye Movements)
Dream incorporation – prevents you from waking up from an outside stimulus, rather that stimulus is woven into your dream environment.  For example, if a police car speeds by your house with its siren on, and you somehow sleep through it, you may wake up, and remember dreaming about being in a high speed chase.

 

HOW to remember your dreams better:

  • Set your alarm about 5 minutes before you usually wake up.
  • Lie very still
  • Think about the last thought you had.
  • Recall backwards (recall the last part of the dream, then recall what happened "just" before that and so on and so forth.)
  • Dream recall is can be enhanced by Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, the active coenzyme of vitamin B-6

Dream Quality in each stage of sleep...

Stage 1 sleep – as falling asleep – eye rolling movements - dreams are 2 dimensional, visual images without dramatic story lines. (like looking at images painted on the inside of your eyelids)
Stages 3 & 4 sleep has lacks a coherent story line
Stage 2 – a little more coherent.
REM - Vivid, rich and dramatic story lines


Activation synthesis - hypothesis of dreaming

(Harvard) Husband& McCarley

  • There are random neural signals – or seizures, through these random signals, some are sent to the visual cortex so as to produce images. Then your brain interprets these images.
  • Scene changes occur at the point of rapid eye movement
  • The brain is also subject to suggestion, therefore if there is a strange (audible) sound, or a verbal cue/suggestion, the person interprets it into the dream.

Lucid Dreams - (Steven La Berge first do demonstrated that lucid dreams exist)  – The dreamer knows that they are dreaming while they are dreaming – allows you certain amount of control.
Usually occurs during the later stages of REM sleep, when there is a higher REM density.

80% have had a lucid dream at least once in their life
10-15% Lucid dream once a month

If you have a high percentage of lucid dreams, you typically have very high dream recall over all

If you are lucid, and then realize you are waking-up, and you wish to keep dreaming, make your dream-body spin, and repeat to yourself "I’m dreaming…I’m dreaming…I’m dreaming…" This prevents you from waking,, brings you back into the dream, and helps you remember you are dreaming.

 

Also when dreaming you have high account of amnesia of the real world. For example while living in Seattle, you may think (dream) you're living in N.Y.
Reality monitoring -in the waking world, being able to distinguish between reality and dreams.       

 

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Drugs

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Drugs
  
Food
    Vitamins
    Minerals – lithium – treats bipolar disorder and is in drinking water – lithium has a dampening on violence
    Aspirin
    Chocolate – love receptors – aphrodisiac
    Coffee
    Alcohol
    Nicotine

Butter increases serotonin, and lowers your aggression.
    low serotinin is associated to violent behavior and suicide

Some stimulants
    Coffee
    ma haung
    Methamphetamine
    cocaine
    nicotine

 

Death Rate

Age Non Smoker Smoker
55 4% 10%
65 10% 28%
25 25% 50%

    1988 Alcohol cost the US 33 billion
            other drugs – 7.2 billion
            7% of US Citizens have a severe problem with alcohol

Some depressants
   alcohol
    seconal
    opium
    morphine
    heroin

                        The more refined these depressants are, the more addictive.

 

Not very addictive:

Some hallucinogens

Marijuana (sometimes classified as a hypnotic, i.e. sleep aid)
Psiloscybin
LSD
DMT
Mescaline

400 Chemicals in marijuana

    60 cannabinoids
    Delta-9-tetrahydroidcannabind
        (delta symbol)-9-THC
     Fat soluble


More Marijuana Information

Sinsemillz 13%-15% of THC
    Hash or hash oil = 60%
        If you ingest, it takes 3x as much as if you smoke it.

THC decreases turnover of acetylcholine in the hippocampus – DON’T STUDY STONED!

The receptors are called: anadaminde receptor
    in (Sanskrit means bliss)

 

Relative Danger of Various Drugs

Other classifications that include many of the hallucinogens are:

  1. psychedelic (mind manifesting):
  2. Etheogenic (revealing the god within):
For example:
    Ayahuasca

combination of tree leaves which produces an experience just as powerful as LSD
Might be useful for treating addictions of other various drugs.

    Ibogaine

Africian Root used to in the initiation ceremony of men coming of age (adolescence to adulthood)
Might be useful for treating addictions of other various drugs, especially heroin (could cause brain damage in high dosages.)

Harm reduction:

Reducing the harm that drugs cause...

Supporting any positive move towards a greater good (the reduction of harm)
For example

Since we won’t get all the needle users to stop, we might as well help stop disease spreading, and other harmful affects of shared needles through Needle Exchanges. Program.

Instead of imprisoning users and small dealers, we could initiate drug treatment programs.

For example:

  Prison Treatment – "Project Detap"
Cost $44,000 $18,000
% of Success 16% 40%

In the united states, 1/180 people are imprisoned, the highest in the world excluding Russia.
Most of the prison population are incarcerated for nonviolent drug related offenses.

Addicts can be supplied with minimal dosages of the drugs that they are addicted to so that they do not have to commit crime to support their habit. - programs such as these (heroine maintenance) are used in England and in the Netherlands.