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History - Psychology's Perspectives:  page 458 / Lecture
    Biological -
        Neuroscience:
        Evolutionary:
    Behavioral genetics:
        Behaviora:
        Cognitive:
        Social cultura:
        Humanistic:

People of Psychology:
    Wundt:
    James:
    Calkins:
    Watson:

Hindsigh bias:

Case studdy:

Correlational study:

Experiment:

Independent variable:

Manipulaiton of independent variable

dependent variable

confounding varibable (definition: a variable not controled in a study or experiment)

control group (definition: Group that does not receive an experimental dreatment

measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode)

Operational Definition

Sampling

Random Sampling from a larger population (called random selection in lecture)

random assignment to groups

correlation coeffient (in detail)

Statistical inference

statistical significance

neurotransmission and the action potentional (ion flow, na+, K+, presented in lecture)

Major neurotransmitters and their behavioral effects
Endorpins
acetycholine
serotonin
epinephrine
dopamine
gaba

Agonist
Antagonist

Nervous Systems:
    Central
    Autonomic

Brain Imaging:
    CT
    PET
    MIR
    fMIR
    EEG
    MEG

The Brain
    Brain Stem
    Hippocampus
    Amygdala
    Cerebellum
    Pituitary
    Hypothalamus
    Cortex
    Sensory Cortex
    Motor Cortex
    Thalamus
    Cortex Basic Subdivisions

        Lobes of the brain
        and their functions

DSM IV: (page 458)
    Defined as being: the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic Guide and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) , a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
  5 or more symptoms over a 2 week period.

Uni-polar Depression  - DSM - IV criteria  (Lecture)

DSM IV Criteria for Mania (Bipolar)   (Lecture)

Eating Disorders:    page: 371
    Psychological influences on eating behavior are strikingly event in those for whom normal homeostatic pressures are overwhelmed by a motive for abnormal thinness.

      Anorexia Nervosa    page: 371
     an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feels fat ((s)he has a destorted self image), and continues to starve.

      Bulimia Nervosa   page: 372
    an eating disorder characterized by private, "binge-purge" episodes of overeating, usually of highly caloric foods, followed by vomiting or laxative use.

Anxiety Disorders: page 460
    Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

    General Anxiety     page 460-464
      
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.  

    Panic Attacks     page462
        A minutes-long episode of intense fear that something horrible is about to happen to them.  Heart palpitations, shortness of breath, choking sensations,trembling, or dizziness typically accompanying the panic.  

Phobias:    page 462
Examples of phobias are:
acrophobia, agoraphobia, claustrophobia
   
Phobias focus anxietety on some specific object, activity, or situation.  Phobias irrational fears that dirsupt behavior--are common psychological disorder that people offten accept and live with.

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 462-463
    Obsessions and Compulsions
        Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors cross the fine line between normality and disorder when they become so persistant that they interfere with the way we live or when they cause distress.

    Hypochondriasis    lecture
       
Disorder in which a person is obsessive about germs, cleanliness, disease

    Drugs and treatment:
        Valarian Root - page 509 helps with anxiety - along with Librium, these drugs depress the central nervous system activity.  Because they reduce tension and anxiety without causing excess sleepiness, they have been perscribed even for minor emotional stress.  Used in combinaiton with other tharpy, an anxiety drug can help a person learn to cope with frightening situations and fear-triggering stimuli.
        Gaba - lecture inhibitory neurotransmitter
            or the valerian root – Increases Gaba transmission
        Desensitization - Remember the subtle Spider desensitization? if not, you can click here for that page
        Flooding - Reducing most of your fear all at once, facing your fear all in one day; first applied in late sixties.  This method carefully monitors a person's vitals, keeping them on edge while working with the stimuli, bringing them to the brink of wanting to leave the session, until they are able to handle it, then they are flooded at the very end of the session.  For example a person who is afraid of balloons, has a session where they are constantly exposed to balloons during the session then after they are partially comfortable, they then are literally flooded with balloons.

Dissociative Disorders:    pages 465-467
    Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

    Fugue    page 465-466
        Involves presumed forgetting, but also involves fleeing one's home and identity for days, months, or years.  The disorder where people live some place, the are transplanted,

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personalities)    page465-467
        Dissociation of self from orinary consciousness in those with mutiple personality disorder

    Dissociative Amnesia page465 (it wasn't on the study guide)
        Can be caused by head injuries or alcoholic intoxication, it causes the failure to recall events.  Some psychologist believe it begins as a response to intolerable psychological stress.  This type of amnesiaa can be selective, for example only forgetting painful events.