In preparing for the upcoming exam, I recommend that you answer the questions under each of the categories below. In addition, attempt to think of real life examples for many of the concepts. On your exam, you will be asked to apply much of the information by identifying the concept being illustrated in an example. If you have difficulty coming up with examples, you might want to contact us for additional help. Best of luck on the exam!



Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion



1.  What is the difference between a need and drive?

2.  What is homeostasis?

3.  What is an incentive?

4.  Describe the different types of motives (primary, stimulus, secondary) and be able to identify them in an example.

5.  Arousal theory: What is the relationship between arousal and performance (Yerkes-Dodson law)?

6.  Describe Self-Determination Theory. What are the three basic psychological needs described in this theory? (Textbook)

7.  Describe Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs.? What is the difference between deficiency needs and growth needs? How does Maslow’s hierarchy fare in the real world?

8.  What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? How does extrinsic motivation affect a behavior that is intrinsically motivated?

9.  What is the overjustification effect?

10. What is the need for achievement? Describe Achievement goal theory and differentiate between mastery orientation, ego orientation and motivational climate. (Textbook, Figure 11.21)



1.   What roles do the following structures play in our eating behavior: lateral hypothalamus (LH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), & periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus? Describe the chemicals that the periventricular nucleus is sensitive to and how they influence hunger. What occurs when the LH and VMH are selectively stimulated (activated) or destroyed?

      2.   Eating Disorders

a.  What distinguishes anorexia nervosa from bulimia nervosa? What do these disorders have in common?

            b.  Who is at greatest risk for developing these disorders?

            c.  What are some potential causes of anorexia and bulimia?

            d.  What treatments are available for people suffering from eating disorders?

            e.  What are the different (genetic & psychological) causes of obesity?

            f.   What is the relationship between leptin, the VMH, and eating behavior?



1.  Describe the different components of emotion (physiological, behavioral, cognitive).

2. What are the physiological responses of emotion and what areas of the brain are responsible for these responses? What biochemical substances appear to to be involved in the activation of emotional response? (Textbook and Lecture)

3.  Are emotional expressions universal? If so, which ones are and what evidence is there to support it? What are the implications of Ekman and Friesen’s study on emotional expressions?

4.  What are cultural display rules and how do they influence our expression of emotion?

5.  What is the facial feedback hypothesis? (Textbook)

6. What are the different theories of emotion presented in the lecture and in the textbook? How do they explain the relationship between the different components of emotion (physical, psychological, and cognitive aspects)?



Chapter 12: Development over the Life Span

Early Maturation (the neonate)


1.  What are an infant’s basic reflexes?

2.  What are the visual preferences of the newborn?

3.  What are the implications of Meltzoff & Moore’s study on infant imitation?

4.  What is cross modal matching in infants and what does it tell us about the abilities of a newborn?

5.  What are the auditory preferences of the newborn?

6.  What are the implications of the concept of number in infants, especially with regard to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

7.  Define the term 'maturation' and how it influences development.

8. Describe infant motor and emotional development. Be sure you know the sequence of development for each.


Social Development

      1.   What is self-awareness and when does it develop?

2.   What are the different types of attachment and how are they manifested?

3.   What role does contact comfort play in development?  What were the results of Harlow’s research on attachment in rhesus monkeys?


  Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory(Textbook)

      1.  What are the stages of psychosocial development as proposed by Erikson?

      2.  Which ages and dilemmas are associated with each stage?

Language Development

1.  What are the stages of language development?

2.  What is telegraphic speech?

3.  What are the theories of language development?

4.  Is there a time limit to learning language? What evidence is there for a time limit?


Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

1.   What are the stages of cognitive development as proposed by Piaget? 

2.   What are the milestones and ages associated with each stage?

3.   What are the processes of assimilation and accommodation and what is their importance in cognitive development? 

4.   What are some of the advantages and limitations of Piaget’s theory?

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning (Textbook)

      1.  Describe the stages of moral reasoning as proposed by Kohlberg.

      2.  What factors influence the progression of moral reasoning?


Chapter 13: Personality


Psychoanalytic Theory

  1. What are the three levels of awareness described by Freud?
  2. What are the three mental structures proposed by Freud? What are their roles and at what level of awareness do they operate?
  3. Define the following terms and describe how they relate to the above structures: libido, life instincts (Eros), death instinct (Thanatos), pleasure principle, reality principle, conscience, ego ideal.
  4. What are the different defense mechanisms described by Freud and why are they used? THINK OF EXAMPLES!
  5. What are the psychosexual stages proposed by Freud and how do they relate to personality? What are the ages and erogenous zones associated with each stage? What is a fixation and what type of personality would a fixation at the various stages produce?


The Trait Approach

1.  What is Cattell’s approach to personality ? Describe Catells 16 personality factors (Textbook)

2.  What is the five-factor model (also known as the Big Five) of personality ? What are the five key dimensions outlined by this model? What does it mean to have high or low scores on these dimensions? Be sure you can identify a category based on a description of a person.

3. How stable are personality traits over time and how consistent are they across situations? (Textbook)


The Social-Cognitive Perspective (Textbook)

      1. What is self-efficacy? What 4 factors create differences in slef-efficacy (Figure 13.17)?

      2. How does locus of control influence a person's behavior? Describe the difference between internal and external locus of control and how they are related to self-esteem and the ability to cope with stress.


Phenomenological-Humanistic Perspective (Textbook)

  1. Describe Carl Rogers's Theory of Self (be sure to include the following concepts in your description: self-consistency, congruence, need for positive regard, & unconditional positive regard).
  2. How does the degree of congruence between self-concept and experience influence personality?
  3. Describe Carl Rogers's view of a fully functioning person.


Personality Assessment

  1. What are the different objective tests (personality scales) used in personality assessment?
  2. What are the different projective tests of personality?
  3. What are the pros and cons for using each of the above types of tests?