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F O R M S  O F  R E A S O N I N G

Quasi-logical arguments
Quasi-logical arguments place two or three elements in a relation to one another so as to make the connections between them similar to the connections in formal logic.

Analogy arguments
Analogy arguments reason that because two objects resemble each other in certain known respects, they will also resemble each other in respects that are unknown.

Generalization
In a generalization one reasons that what is true of certain members of a class will also be true of other members of the same class or of the class as a whole.

Argument from example
Argument from example seeks acceptance for some general rule or principle by offering a concrete, particular case.

Causal arguments
Arguments from cause claim that one condition or event contributes to or brings about another condition or event.

Coexistential arguments
An argument from coexistence reasons from something that can be observed (a sign) to a condition or feature that cannot be observed.

Dissociation arguments
Dissociation arguments disengage one idea from another and seek a new evaluation of both ideas.


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This site was designed by
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at the Instructional Resources Center,
with help from Barbara Warnick
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Critical Thinking and Communication.
Last Revised 10/08/98
Speech Communication