Becker, C.D. "Past and Present Water-quality Conditions in the Hanford Reach,Columbia River." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 22.2 (1992) : 137-152. Twelve water quality variables from upstream and downstream location in the Hanford Reach were compared statistically for the two time periods.
Bodi, F.L. “Saving Salmon in the Northwest.” Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 11.2 (1996) : 46-49. Nineteen federal hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin have created a river environment that poses a direct threat to salmon. River flows must be substantially increased during the spring and summer. Public opinion polls indicate that citizens in the Northwest would be willing to pay such a price to improve the plight of salmon.
Bodi, Lorraine. “Hanford Reach of the Columbia Named Nation’s Most Endangered River of 1998.” 6 April. 1998. American Rivers. Online. Available http://wwwamrivers.org/98-hanford.html (4/14/98). An exhaustive website highlighting the important ecological threats which face American river systems.
Cunningham, William P., and Barbara Woolworth Saigo. «Environmental Science: A Global Concern.» Dubuque: Wm.C. Brown, 1997. An excellent reference to the various ecological patterns which present themselves in the natural world, and the factors which upset the balance of these systems.
Dauble, D.D. “Status of Fall Chinook Salmon Populations in the Mid-Columbia River.” North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17.2 (1997) :283-300. Examines the production potential of Chinook spawning in Hanford Reach, and the historical factors effecting Chinook populations in Reach.
Dietrich, William. "Northwest Passage: The Great Columbia River." New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. A thoughtful perspective of the history and development of the Columbia River as it has evolved over time. The book synthesizes the many different factors which have impacted the course of the river over time.
Fitzner, R.E. “Great Basin Canada Goose Nesting on the Mid-Columbia River.” Northwest-Science 68.1 (1994) : 37-42. Nest counts of Canadian Geese in Hanford Reach. Shows decline in nest numbers and looks at factors contributing to dispersal of nests.
Fraley, J. “Mitigation, compensation, and Future Protection for Fish Populations Affected by Hydropower Development in the Upper Columbia System.” Regulated Rivers, Research and Management 3.1 (1989) : 3-18 Estimates losses in fish populations and covers protection alternatives for reservoirs and downstream river reaches affected by the hydropower development.
Geist, D.R. “The Hanford Reach: What Do We Stand To Lose?” Illahee 11.3-4 (1995) : 130-141. Discusses human impact on natural resources of the Columbia River.
Gray, R.H. “A description of long-term environmental monitoring and assessment programs at two U.S. Department of Energy sites.” Water Environment Research 69.5 (1997) : 1015-21. Describes the environmental impact of Hanford nuclear site on the Hanford Reach.
Grossman, C.M. “Hypothyroidism and Spontaneous Abortions among Hanford, Washington, Downwinders.” Archives of Environmental Health 51.3 (1996) : 175-176. Spontaneous abortions occurred more than twice as frequently in hyperthyroid women, compared with nonhypothyroid women. The high incidence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of several hundred women who lived downwind of the Hanford nuclear installation was likely associated with environmental contaminations from deliberate releases of radioactive iodine from the facility.
Hall, J.A. “Aspects of Forster’s Tern Reproduction on Cobblesone Islands in South-central Washington.” Northwest-Science 63.3 (1989): 90-95. Compares reproductive viability of Forster’s tern in terms of nesting success in the Hanford reach as compared to other populations from study marsh sites.
Hastings, “Doc”. 105th Congress. HR 1811 IH To Ensure the long-term Protection of the Columbia River Known as the Hanford Reach. Washington: 5 June, 1997. A bill which, rather than protect the Hanford Reach, would open it up to developement by agricultural and industrial interest.
McIntosh, B.A. “Historical Changes in Fish Habitat for Select River Basins of Eastern Oregon and Washington.” Northwest Science 68 (1994) : 36-53. Compares surveys of more than 8,000 km of streams from 1932 to 1942 with subsequent studies done from 1990 to 1992. Basin resurveys how a watersheds remained the same or increased. Differences in land-use histories partially explain current fish habitat conditions and the declines in anadromous fish runs.
McGinnis, M.V. “On the Verge of Collapse: The Columbia River System, Wild Salmon and the Northwest Power Planning Council.” Natural Resources Journal 35.1 (1995) : 63-92. This article reviews the NPPC’s recent attempts to restore and preserve the fish and wildlife to the Columbia River Basin with the Endangered Species Act as a backdrop.
Mighetto, Lisa. "Saving the Wild Salmon: A History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Efforts to Protect Anadromous Fish on the Columbia and Snake Rivers . " Seattle: Historical Research Associates, Inc., 1994. An interesting spin on the role which the U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers has played in altering the natural systems which once supported vast populations of wild salmon. No apologies here..
Murray, Patty. United States Senate. S 200 IS. "To Amend the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act to Designate a Portion of the Columbia River as a Recreational River, and for other Purposes. " Washington: 23 January, 1997. A critical piece of legislation which would preserve the Hanford Reach from development by state and county concerns.
Pender, Shawn. Personal Interview. 14 April. 1998. Gave references for tribal feedback on the Hanford Reach and the Indian Nations stand on Senator Patty Murry’s Bill S 200 IS.
Quinn, T.P. “Environmental Changes Affecting the Migratory Timing of American Shad and Sockeye Salmon.” Ecology 77.4 (1996) : 1151-1162. Compares the migratory behavioral response to environmental changes in sockeye salmon and shad populations, and the effects which these evolutionary constraints place on species reproduction in the face of alteration to river morphology.
Rickard, W.H. “The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: A Refuge for Fish and Rivarian Wildlife and Plants in Eastern Washington.” Natural Areas Journal 15.1 (1995) : 68-74. Explores the role of the Hanford Site, which for nearly 50 years was a major producer of plutonium and released radionuclides and heated water directly into the river, especially in the years 1944-1971, in now providing protection for a number of species in the Columbia River.
Richard, W.H. “Four Decades of Environmental Change and their Influence upon Native Wildlife and Fish on the Mid-Colombia River.” Environmental Conservation 12.3 (1985) : 241-248. Today, Hanford Site consists mostly of undeveloped land that still supports native vegetation. It is free from agricultural practices and has also been essentially free from livestock grazing and the shooting of animal wildlife. This conservative land-use has favored populations of native wildlife that use the riverian habitats of the Hanford Reach.
Shipler, D.B. “Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project:An Overview.” Health Physics 71.4 (1996) : 532-544. Public interest prompted investigation of historical releases of radioactive material at the Hanford Site. They looked at where the radioactive material would have traveled in the river, and at groundwater contamination.
Stegner, Wallace. "Where the Bluebird Sings to the Lemonade Spring." New York: Random, 1992. This book presents the insights of a great writer who has spent his entire life in the West. Stegner is an advocate for environmental protection, and he combines his personal experience of the natural world with an academic understanding of the dangers which the fragile West faces in the from of development and exploitation
Tabor, R.A. "Predation on Juvenile Salmonids by Smallmouth Bass and Northern Squawfish in the Columbia River near Richland.” North American Journal of Fish Management 13.4 (1993) : 831-838. Connects the availability of juvenile salmonids with the success and survival of other fish species in the Columbia River.
Tiller, B. “Testicular Atrophy in a Mule Deer Population.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33.3 (1997) : 420-429. Monitors mule deer on a former plutonium production site along Columbia River at the Hanford Site. Numerous mutations discovered.
Thayer, Rick. Personal Interview. 14 April. 1998 Mr. Thayer explained the position of the Intertribal Fisheries Commission with regard to the protection of the Hanford Reach.
Thomas, J.W. “Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia River Basin.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 24.2 (1996) : 180-186. An overview of the ecosystem approach to management of natural resources adopted by the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. It also explains the legal implications of implementing an ecosystem approach under the National Environmental Policy Act.
Vaughan, T.L. “Breast Cancer Incidence at a Nuclear Facility Demonstration of a Morbidity Surveillance System.” Health Physics 64:4 (1993) : 349-354 Examination of surveillance data at the Hanford site identified a possible increase in breast cancer incidence among women working at the site.
Whidden, S.M. “The Hanford Reach: Protecting the Columbia’s Last Safe Haven for Salmon.” Environmental Law 26.1 (1996) : 265-297. Hanford Reach has consistently supported an abundant population of naturally spawning Pacific Fall Chinook salmon because of the protected nature of the Reach as a result of Federal oversight. If this land changes hands, the endangered fish populations could be threatened by development and agricultural uses.
Zorpette, G. “Hanford’s Nuclear Wasteland.” Scientific American 274.5 (1996) :88-97. An article concerning pollution assessment, control and management at the Hanford Nuclear Site.
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