Columbia River Class
April 21, 98
Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act and Its Impacts on the Rural Communities
The 99thCongress approved Public Law 99-663, the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act (the "Act") on November 17, 1986, "to protect and provide for the enhancement of the resources of the Columbia River Gorge and for other purposes." The Act has given certain guidelines to the designated rural communities in the Columbia River Gorge area. This research paper will attempt to reveal the impacts on such communities by the Act in the past 11 years.
Abbott, Carl; Sy Adler; and Margery Post Abbott. Planning a New West: The Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Corvallis, Ore.: Oregon State University Press, 1997. A description of the political battles over the future of the Gorge.
Attwell, Jim. Columbia River Gorge History. Volume one. Stevenson, Wash.: Tahlkie Books, 1974. History around the Cascades from 1805 to 1865.
Columbia River Gorge History. Volume two. Stevenson, Wash.: Tahlkie Books, 1975. History around the Cascade from the late 1980's to the early 1900's.
Clark, Robert. River of the West: Stories from the Columbia. New York: Harper Collins West, 1995. Portraits of the people who lived and died at the Columbia River.
Columbia River Gorge Commission, and USDA Forest Service, National Scenic Area. Management Plan for the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. White Fish, Wash. and Hood River, Ore.: 1992. A guideline regarding management of the affected area, published by the designated governmental agencies appointed by the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act.
Final Draft Management Plan for General and Special Management Areas. White Salmon Wash. and Hood River, Ore. 1991. A final draft guideline for management of the General Management Areas (GMA) and Special Management Areas (SMA).
1990 Annual Report. White Salmon, Wash.: 1991. 1990 annual report regarding the progress and activities of the Commission and the designated areas under the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act.
Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State University. The Columbia Gorge, A Unique American Treasure. Pullman, Wash.: Washington State University, 1985. Informational materials presented in the intensive two-day course on the Columbia River Gorge, including but not limited to historical, cultural, geological, biological, and hydrological aspects.
Galston, William A.; and Karen J. Baehler. Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities. Washington, D. C.: Island Press, 1995. Discussion on the theoretical and practical literature from the last two decades related to rural economic development.
Getzels, Judith and Charles Thurow, editors. Rural and Small Town Planning. Chicago, Illinois: Planners Press, 1979. Tool book for new professional planners whose focus is rural areas.
Harden, Blaine. A River Lost, the Life and Death of the Columbia. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996. Observation by a journalist of controversial issues related to the Columbia River.
Hays, Samuel. Beauty, Health and Permanence: Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955-1985. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Discussion of the urban dimension of Western environmental politics.
Hirt, Paul W. A Conspiracy of Optimism: Management of the National Forests since World War II. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. Discussions on the national forest harvest policy.
Johnston, George M. Natural Resource and Environmental Policy Analysis: Cases in Applied Economics. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1988. Discussion on the roles of economics in natural resource and environmental policy analysis including case studies.
Lewis, Meriwether; and William Clark. The Journal of Lewis and Clark, edited by Bernard DeVoto. Cambridge, Mass.: The Riverside Press, 1953. A digest version of the journal of Lewis and Clark.
McKinley, Charles. Uncle Sam in the Pacific Northwest: Federal Management of Natural Resources in the Columbia River Valley. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1952. A study in public administration and public policy in the Pacific Northwest.
Merton, Robert. Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1957. Discussion on social theories regarding the distinction between local and cosmopolitan orientations.
Northwest Power Planning Council; and Agencies and Tribes of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. Columbia Basin System Planning, Draft Hood Subbasin. Hood River, Ore.: 1988. A draft plan for the fish and wildlife program in the Hood River area prepared by the Northwest Power Planning Council.
Ortolano, Leonard. Environmental Planning and Decision Making. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1984. Textbook for professional planners and students with respect to the environmental aspects in planning, including policies, regulations and environmental impact analysis.
Pacific Northwest Regional Planning Commission, Columbia Gorge Committee. Columbia Gorge Conservation and Development. Portland, Ore.: 1937. Report on the problem of conservation and development of scenic and recreational resources of the Columbia Gorge in Washington and Oregon.
Pomeroy, Earl. In Search of the Golden West: The Tourist in Western America. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1957. Description of the development of Western tourism.
Rasker, Ray. A New Home on the Range: Economic Realities in the Columbia River Basin. Washington, D.C.: The Wilderness Society, 1995. Analyses of changes in the larger Northwest economy.
Rudel, Thomas. Situations and Strategies in American Land-Use Planning. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1989. Discussions on rural land use planning.
Selznick, Philip. TVA and the Grassroots. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1949. A classic study of the capture of planning efforts by local economic and political interests.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Oversight Hearing on the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act; Hearing before the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session Special Hearing. Washington, D. C.: 1986. Hearing records of the 104th Congress on the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, Final Interim Guidelines. Hood River, Ore.: 1987. An interim guideline to the designated areas for their development under the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act.
White, Richard. The Shaping of Island County, Washington. Seattle, Wash.: Univeristy of Washington Press, 1980. A description of growing recreational use of one part of the rural Northwest.
Wiebe, Robert. The Search for Order, 1877-1920. New York: Hill and Wang, 1967. Discussion on the changing scale of American social organization.
Williams, Chuck. Bridge of the Gods, Mountains of Fire: A Return to the Columbia Gorge. New York: Firends of the Earth, 1980. Local history of the Columbia River Gorge written by a local journalist.
Williams, Ira A. Geologic History of the Columbia River Gorge, as Interpreted from the Historical Columbia River Scenic Highway. 3rd ed. Portland, Ore.: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1991. A description of geological features of the Columbia River Gorge.
Wondeolleck, Julia. Public Lands Conflict and Resolution: Managing National Forest Disputes. New York: Plenum Press, 1988. A description of changing character of the Forest Service.