Summyr Wyatt

Summyr Wyatt
Proposal for research paper

Indian Fishing Tribes of the lower Columbia River

I propose to write a research paper on the history of Indian fishing tribes and salmon fishing on the lower Columbia River. Topics will include an extensive description of the tribal villages and their dependence on the river and its salmon as a source of their subsistence, culture and livelihood; a river their lives once solely revolved around. A history of salmon fishing by the early white explorers and settlers will also be included, illustrating the ill effects that have occurred to the Natives along the Columbia River; and the salmon that once filled the river so densely, that it boasted the most plentiful salmon run in North America. A conclusion to the paper will show that many of the Native tribes of the lower Columbia have all but diminished, and the salmon have become an endangered species. Sources will include various historical Native American, salmon resources, and accounts of history in the Columbia River Gorge. Difficulty may lie in finding published information of current salmon conditions and proposed enactments and pending laws.


1. Attwell, Jim. Tahmahnaw, The Bridge of the Gods. Tahlkie Books, Skamania, Washington. 1973. A book which depicts the Columbia River Gorge from a mythical point of view as they have been told by Native Americans of the region throughout time.

2. Barsh, Russel L. The Washington Fishing Rights Controversy - An Economic Critique. Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 1977. An overview of treaties and rights of Native American fishing rights along the Washington coast and inland rivers.

3. Buerge, David. 1992 The Columbia Gorge. Sasquatch Books, Seattle, WA. 1992. Buerge dipicts the Columbia River Gorge from a tourists view; providing information and history on various locations throughout the Gorge.

4. DeVoto, Bernard. Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1953. Lewis and Clarks journals reproduced.

5. McKeown, Martha Ferguson. Come to our Salmon Feast. Binfords and Mort, Portland, Oregon. 1959. McKeown, native to the Columbia River Gorge, reviews historical Native American traditions; including the "first salmon rights."

6. Netbody, Anthony: 1980 The Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Their fight for survival. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. 1980. Biological study of salmon survival along the Columbia river over the past 50 years.

7. Neubrach, Walt. Indian Treaties: American nightmare. Outdoor Empire Publishing Inc, Seattle, WA . 1977. Historical review of Indian treaties in the Pacific Northwest.

8. Strong, Emory. Stone Age on the Columbia River. Binfords and Mort Publishers, Portland, Oregon. 1959. Historical account of the Columbia River and its geological formations, historical Indian sites.

9. Williams, Chuck. Bridge of the Gods Mountains of Fire, A return to the Columbia Gorge. Friends of the Earth, Elephant Mountain Arts, New York, New York. 1980.

10. Underhill, Ruth. Indians of the Pacific Northwest. Dept. of the Interior, Washington D.C. 1945. Description of Native American Tribes of the Pacific Northwest.

11. Webber, Bert. Indians Along the Oregon Trail: The Tribes of Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Webb Research Group, New York. 1989.

12. Dove, Mourning. A Salishan Autobiography - American Indian lives. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska. 1994. Mourning Dove, a writer, school teacher and member of the Colville Indian tribe, accounts history of her tribe.

13. Trafzer, Clifford. Yakima, Palouse, Cayuse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, and Wanapum Indians: An Historical Bibliography (Native American Bibliograhpy Series, No. 16). Scarecrow Press, 1992.

14. Zucker, Jay. Oregon Indians:Culture, History and Current Affairs: An Atlas and Introduction, 1991

15. Clark,Ella. How Coyote Made the Columbia river; Indian Legends of the Pacific Norhtwest. Berkeley, Californua,. 1992. Clark depicts Indian legends from tribal history that have passed along from generation to generation. Legends give insight to the significance of salmon to the Natives of the area.

16. Cronon, William. The Great Columbia Plain; A Historical Geography, 1805-1910. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. 1995. A story of transformation of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho as a once dismissed wasteland into one of the richest farmlands in the nation. Geographic description with historical narrative.

17. Hines, Donald M. The Forgotten Tribes, Oral Tales of the Teninos and Adjacent Mid-Columbia River Indian Nations. Great Eagle Publications, New York, N.Y. 1991. Traditional stories that remain from those cultures published as originally told by Native informants to an amateur ethnologist in the early part of the century.

18. Trafzer, Clifford E. Chinook (Indians of North America). Chelsea House Publications, New York, N.Y. 1990. Examines the history, culture, changing fortunes, and current situation of the Chinook Indians.

19. Boyd, Robert. People of the Dalles; The Indians of Wascopam Mission. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, NB. 1996. Historical ethnography of the Chinookan (Wasco-Wishram) and Sahaptin peoples of The Dalles area of the Columbia River between 1805-1848. Ancestors to peoples presently located on the Warm Springs and Yakima reservations.

20. Palmer, Tim. The Columbia: Sustaining a Modern Resource. Mountaineers Books. 1997. A large format, full color pictorial celebrates the landscape and people that shaped the area, providing historical references to different areas along the Columbia River.

21. Seufert, Francis A. Wheels of Fortune. Oregon Historical Society. Portland, Ore. 1981. History of early salmon fishing using the technology of the fishwheel along the Columbia River.

22. Newell, Dianne. The Development of the Pacific Slamon-Canning Industry; A Grown Mans game. McGill Queens University Press, New York, N.Y. 1990. Early accounts of the beginning of the salmon harvesting along the Columbia River. Historical reference to the origin of the canning industry.

23. Leonard, Larry. Fishing the Lower Columbia. FranK Amato publishers, Chicago, IL. 1993. Historical perspective of fishing on the river before coming of the dams which have drowned the once numerous falls and fishing holes.

24. Smith, Courtland L. Salmon Fishers of the Columbia. Oregon State University Press, Portland, Or. 1980. Historical look of fishing along the Columbia River by the white settlers and the Native Americans.

25. Martin, Irene. Legacy and Testament: The Story of Columbia River Gillnetters. Washington State University Press, Seattle, WA. 1994. Focus is on the beginning of the commercial salmon industry along the Columbia. Full descriptions of the early settlers who came to adapt fishing techniques from the Native Americans.

26. Donaldson, Ivan J. Fishwheels of the Columbia. Binford and Mort Publishers, Portland, Ore. 1971. Descriptions of the Fishwheels used for harvesting tons of salmon. A practice that was used in Scandinavian countries which found its way to the mouth of the Columbia.

27. Ronda, James P. Lewis and Clark among the Indians. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska. 1988. Ronda draws from the journals and other documents a compelling narrative of the expeditions encounter with the Indians. An insight into the cultural clashes which occurred between the Native Americans and the first explorers of the area.

28. Ross, Alexander. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. Lakeside Press, 1922. A historical account of the first white settlers in Oregon and along the Columbia River.

29. Russell, Harper J. Paul Kane's Frontier. University of Texas Press, Austin, Tx. 1971.

30. Ambrose, Stephen. Undaunted Courage. : Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. Touchtone Books,. 1997. A biography of Meriwether Lewis that relies heavily on the journals of both Lewis and Clark's route to the Pacific. Ambrose notes and admires the duo's fearlessness and skill in braving the unknown. Emphasis is placed on the relations with various native peoples and what they reported to Jefferson. Ambrose not only chronicles the events of the "corps of Discovery, but gives one the sense of being there.


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