Annotated Bibliography


Primary Sources


Albaugh, Andrew M. “Mall Sprawl: A look at urban sprawl before and after the Tacoma             Mall.”             (Undergraduate Research Project, University of Washington – Tacoma, TESC: 311-A,             2001) [diskette], March 2001.


            The data used from this research project was originally part of an ArcView GIS (Geographic Information System) presentation mapping out the decline of open spaces in the Tacoma Mall area, Tacoma, Washington, between the years 1961 and 1995.



Hoke, Roy, interview by author, shorthand notation, Tacoma, WA, 9 Feb. 2001.


            Hoke is an employee with ABSHER construction company and the superintendent on the University Of Washington – Tacoma project.



King County Solid Waste Division, Seattle WA.  Seattle/King County Construction Recycling             Directory 2000-2001. Mar. 2000.


This comprehensive directory of construction recycling centers is a great tool for getting a quick look at all the recycling centers in King County.  In addition, a small number of C&D waste recycling centers from Pierce, Snohomish, and Thurston Counties are included.



King County Solid Waste Division, Seattle WA.  Seattle/King County Contractors’ Guide to             Preventing Waste and Recycling 1998/99. 1999.


This is an excellent quick reference guide for contractors, outlining strategies for recycling and giving a brief background on recycling C&D waste.



Musick, Mark. “Recycling Gypsum from C&D Debris,” BioCycle 33, no. 3 (March 1992): 34-            36.


Musick’s article focuses on the different possibilities for recycling gypsum products, including sheetrock, wallboard, plaster, and others.



Rathje, William L. “Name It and Claim It. (Construction Debris in Landfills),” GARBAGE 4,             no. 4 (July-August 1992): 20-21.


This brief article by Rathje discusses the potential uses that C&D waste has once it has been discarded in the landfill.


Recovery 1, Inc. Construction, Demolition, & Land-Clearing Debris Recycling Center. Tacoma,             WA. June 2000.


            Recovery 1, Inc.  is a large C&D recycling center in the industrial area of Tacoma, Washington.  The material referenced here is a faxed advertisement from Recovery 1 to Roy Hoke of ABSHER Construction outlining what is accepted and the different recycling prices.



United States Environmental Protection Agency. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), title 40,             part 243 section 101.


            The US EPA defines C&D waste in this part and section.



Washington. Washington State Recycling Processors For CDL:             Construction/Demolition/Landclearing Debris. Washington State Department of             Ecology, 1992.


This is an older, very comprehensive list of different recycling centers in Washington State, this document was organized and produced by the Washington State Department of Ecology.



Whitted, Doug, interview by author, shorthand notation, Tacoma, WA, 25 Feb. 2001.


            Doug Whitted is currently an employee with Wick Constructs, a large Union construction company.  Whitted has had many years of experience in the construction field and is very knowledgeable on matters concerning independent contractors.



Secondary Sources


Alexander, Judd H. In defense of Garbage.  Westport Connecticut: Praeger Publishing, 1993.


            Alexander’s book is a broad overview of garbage in the United States.  He makes many references to C&D debris.



C&D Recycling in Pierce Co., Accessed March, 2001,  


            Pierce County, Washington’s official website for C&D recycling.  This site is very comprehensive and has many other links and references.


Dolan, Patrick J., Richard G. Lampo, Jacqueline C. Dearborn. Concepts for Reuse and Recycling             of Construction and Demolition Waste. US Army Corps of Engineers, Construction             Engineering Research Laboratories, 1999. USACERL Technical Report 97/58.


            This Army Technical Manual was written to educate members of the Army who’s task it is to deconstruct old Army barracks.  This manual is very thorough and complete.



Murphy, Pamela. The Garbage Primer: A Handbook for Citizens.  The League of Women Voters             Education Fund, New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers, 1993.


Murphy’s book is a great general book on garbage, with very limited reference to C&D debris.



Pierson, Paul L. Construction and Demolition Debris: Recycling and Reuse In Washington State    An Overview and Internship Report. Bellingham, WA: Huxley College of Environmental             Studies, 1997.


Pierson’s report is specific for Washington state and gives a great overview of C&D waste and recycling.  There are many references to specific materials and how they are recycled.



Reusable Building Materials Exchange, Accessed March, 2001   


This is Pierce County, Washington’s website where individuals that have usable building materials can contact individuals seeking used building materials.  There are also links to other counties in western Washington that have similar programs.