Copyright 2001 ROBERT H. LEWIS



Cilimburg, Amy; Monz, Christopher; Kehoe, Sharon. "Wildland Recreation and Human Waste: A Review of Problems, Practices, and Concerns." Environmental Management, Vol. 25, No. 6 (2000): 587-598.  This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding pathogens and human waste disposal in dispersed backcountry recreational areas in the United States.

Ells, Michael D., "Impact of Human Waste Disposal On Surface Water Runoff." Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 59, Issue 8 (1997): 6-12.  This paper presents the results of a study to determine the concentration of fecal coliforms and other contaminants in the runoff along the most frequently used ascent route of Mt. Rainier.

Jensen, Karina. "Rainier Mountaineering, Inc.," 535 Dock Street, Tacoma, WA 98402. Guide service on Mt. Rainier. Personal Interview.   A personal interview with a current mountain guide to give first hand up to the minute practices concerning the removal of human waste on Mt. Rainier. Very useful information.

Meyer, Kathleen. How To Shit In The Woods. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1989.  An informative book explaining everything one needs to know when being far from the convenience of a modern toilet. As the title implies, very descriptive.

Riggle, David. "Technology Improves for Composting Toilets." BioCycle, Vol. 37, Issue 4 (1996): 39.  This paper presents current information on composting toilets, including recent regulatory guidelines. Covers both single family and multi-person use toilets.

Van der Ryn, Sim. The Toilet Papers, Santa Barbara: Capra Press, 1978.  This book is the forerunner to the above article. Presents diagrams and applications of composting toilets and their practicality.

Waterman, Laura and Guy. Backwoods Ethics, Woodstock: The Countryman Press, 1993.  This book provides a wealth of information, both human waste removal and also removal of other items left behind by man. Also covers camping and backpacking equipment.


Gauthier, Michael. Mount Rainier, A Climbing Guide. Seattle: The Mountaineers, (1999).  This book contains information on climbing routes, plus National Park rules and regulations concerning climbing, human impact, number of party members.

National Park Service, Human Waste Packout System, 204 W. Alma, Mt. Shasta, CA.  This information is provided to al climbers on Mt. Shasta with containers for returning human waste for proper disposal.

Selters, Andy and Zanger, Michael. The Mt. Shasta Book. Berkeley: Wilderness Press, (1995).  A climbing, hiking, and recreation guide for the Mt. Shasta area. Contains rules and regulations plus a USGS topographic map of the Mr. Shasta

Smoot, Jeff. Summit Guide to the Cascade Volcanoes. Evergreen, Colorado: Chockstone Press, (1992).  As the title implies, climbing guides on mountains from Mt. Garibaldi in Canada to Mt. Lassen in California. Also contains rules and regulations regarding low impact to leave no trace camping.

USGS, Mt. Rainier East, Wash., Topographic Map of subject study area.    Map prepared by the United States Geological Survey showing a topographical view of the eastern half of Mt. Rainier, with 40 foot contour intervals.