Environmental Impact of Waste from Meat Production

BIBLIOGRAPHY Copyright 2001 by Sean Sessions

Backus, G.B.C.; C.P.A. van Wagenberg, and N. Verdoes, "Environmental Impact of Pig Meat Production," Meat Science, 49 1994.  Evaluated the nitrogen and mineral excretion from swines in Europe. Evaluations determined that the animals studied do excrete great quantities of minerals and elements and that possibility of reduction exists.

Benka-Coker, M.O., and O.O. Ojior, “ Effect of Slaughterhouse Wastes on the Water Quality of Ikpoba River, Nigeria,” Bioresource Technology, 52 1995.  A controlled study of effluent discharge from a slaughterhouse was conducted. Results did not prove that all pollutants in the river originated from the slaughterhouse. However, larger quantities of bacteria were found down stream of the factory as opposed to upstream.

Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hong Baek Cho, and Sang-Jong Kim, “Heavy Contamination of Subsurface Aquifer and a Stream By Livestock wastewater in a stock  farming area, Wonju, Korea,” Environmental Pollution, 109, 2000.  Due to the amount of surface water used daily in Korea, a study was done to determine if area livestock were contaminating drinking water and well water. It was found that contamination was minimized slightly by heavy rainfall and thus diluting concentrations of fecal matter and other bacteria.

Clark, Gillian, Porphyry, trans. Gillian Clark. New York: Cornell University Press, 2000.  Translated text evaluating, defining, and advocating the abstinence of animal slaughter, or killing for any reason.

Hagedorn, Charles; Sandra L. Robinson, Jennifer R. Filtz, Sarah M. Grubbs, Theresa A. Angier, and Raymond B. Reneau, Jr., “ Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Rural Virginia Watershed with Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Fecal Streptococci,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  1999.  By studying well water in the presence and absence of cattle scientists were able to determine that livestock contributed to a twice than normal level of fecal contamination. Other animals studied were deer and waterfowl.

Itodo, I.N, and J.O. Awulu, " Effects of Total Solids Concentrations of Poultry, Cattle, and Piggery Waste Slurries on Biogas Yield," American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 42(6), 1999.  Studied the quanties of effluent gas excreted from animals in the form of feces and urine. Study found that poultry contribute the greatly to contaminating the environment with ammonia gas.

Kushner, Gary Jay, and Kenneth Farber, “A Run-In With Farm Runoff,” Poultry,  1998.  Written as a press-release-style document this article addressed environmental issues and Washington’s expected agenda regarding them. Main topics were EPA restrictions under the Clean Water Act and and Clinton’s Clean Water Action Plan.

Rifkin, Jeremy, Beyond Beef: The Rise and Fall of the Cattle Culture. New York:  Plume, 1992.  A survey book of the bovine species and its world history. Incorporated subjects are religion, politics, pollution, third-world/developing nation nutrition and health, rainforest degradation, fast food industries and associated wastes of livestock production.

Skjerve, Eystein. “Meat Production and the Environment,” in Outlook on Agriculture, 23, 1992. Holistically evaluating the industry practices, future and environmental impact of meat production. Highlights include explanations of desertification, erosion, nutrification and other key environmental terms.

Stegelin, Forrest. “Livestock Industry of the Future,” Agribusiness., 3.  Rather poorly citied but wealthy of statistics the article included insight to the future of science, technology, and food production. The author focused mainly on elements of communication, regulation and overall respect of the environment to place blame, correct error and prevent problems.