How the Spokanes Have Been Affected and What Is Being Done To Compensate For Their Losses
Copyright 2001 by Twa-le Abrahamson
A River of Promise.Produced and Directed by Bob Bostwick.North by Northwest Productions, 2000.Videocassette.This is a very powerful video; it was the key source I used to determine the topic of my paper.It exposes the promises made by the U.S. Government to the Spokane Tribe, which have been ignored for decades and the losses experienced by the Spokane Tribe through interviews of Tribal elders and leaders.
Bernton, Hal.“Grand Coulee: Proud Accomplishment, Serious Trade-Offs.” Newspaper article online.Updated 17 November 2000; accessed 23 May 2001.Available from http://www.dams.org/media/mediaitem.php?item+130.Article written by a Seattle Times reporter about the Grand Coulee Dam, its function to the Pacific Northwest, and its effects to the ecosystem and people in the area.
Clark, Robert.River of the West; A Chronicle of the Columbia.New York:Picador USA, 1995.Clark’s book is about the history of the people who lived on the Columbia River.
Kieffer, B.J., Kelly Singer and Twa-le Abrahamson.Spokane Tribe of Indians Wildlife Management Plan.Wellpinit, WA: Spokane Tribe of Indians Wildlife Department, 1999.This is a report, prepared for Bonneville Power, includes site-specific management plans on the lands purchased for wildlife habitat mitigation.
Morgan, Murray.The Dam.New York: The Viking Press, 1954.Morgan’s book is about the history of the Grand Coulee Dam.No notes included.
Munk, Ivan D.Spokane Country: The Way it Was.Spokane:Spokane Heritage, 1973.Historical stories about the Spokane area and people who lived there.
“Native News: The Spokane Tribe Settlement Act”[http://firstname.lastname@example.org/msg05161.html]Statement by Hawaiian Senator Inouye to the Senate in 1999.
Northwest Power Planning Council.“An Introduction to the Annual Project Selection Process in the Columbia River Basin,” Database online.Updated 16 May 2001; accessed 2 May 2001.Available from http://www.nwppc.org/fwintro.htm.
Pearce, Fred.The Dammed.London:The Bodley Head, 1992.History of major dams built in the world.Useful chapter on the Grand Coulee Dam, comparing its production to other dams around the world.
Petersen, Keith C.River of Life Channel of Death.Lewiston:Confluence Press, 1995.Book written about the fish and dams on the Lower Snake River, has useful information also regarding the rest of the Columbia River.
Pitzer, Paul C.Grand Coulee: Harnessing A Dream.Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1994.Pitzer explores the history of the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam, and its importance to Pacific Northwest history.
Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown.The Spokane Indians, Children of the Sun.Norman:University of Oklahoma Press, 1973.History of the Spokane Indians, with interviews, not as widely cited as Wynecoop’s book, although much more detailed.
Strickland, Ron.River Pigs and Cayuses: Oral Histories From the Pacific Northwest.San Francisco:Lexicos, 1984.Strickland recorded stories by elders in the Pacific Northwest, includes a couple of fishing stories that are useful first person accounts of the historic abundance of salmon in the Columbia.
The National Congress of American Indians Resolution # PSC-99-051.“Support of Congressional Settlement of Grand Coulee Dam Claims.”[http://www.ncai.org/NCAIResolutions/Palm%20Springs%20Resolutions/PSC99.051.html]As the title suggests, this resolution was passed in 1999 by the NCAI in support of the Spokane Tribe and their claim to the U.S. Government for a settlement.
Ulrich, Roberta.Empty Nets: Indians, Dams, and the Columbia River.Corvallis:Oregon State University Press, 1999.Excellent book written about the injustices to Indians and the degradation of salmon fishing along the lower Columbia River.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.State of Washington Department of Fisheries.Report of the Preliminary Investigations Into the Possible Methods of Preserving the Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead at the Grand Coulee Dam.Washington, 1938.Long, technical report written before the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam.Most useful sections were the Introduction and Problems sections.
U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration. “Summary of Current BPA Rates,”Database online.Updated 5 March 1997; accessed 25 April 2001.Available from http://www.bpa.gov/Power/psp/rates/currentrates.shtml.
U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. “Grand Coulee Dam,” Database online.Updated 28 January 1999; accessed 17 April 2001.Available from http://www.usbr.gov/cdams/dams/grandcoulee.html.
U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. “Grand Coulee Powerplant,” Database online.Updated 24 January 2001; accessed 5 May 2001.Available from http://www.usbr.gov/power/data/sites/grandcou/grandcou.htm.
U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. “Power Generation Statistics,” Database online.Updated 16 May 2001; accessed 25 May 2001.Available from http://power.rsgis.do.usbr.gov/PowerStat/powsql.cgi.
U.S. Department of the Interior.Bureau of Indian Affairs Spokane Agency.A Forest and Tribe in Transition:A History of the Spokane Indian Reservation Forest 1870-1994.Washington, D.C., 1994.History of the forests and practices that affected the present resources on the Spokane Indian Reservation.
U.S. Department of the Interior.Fish and Wildlife Service.Survey of the Columbia River and Its Tributaries.Washington, D.C., 1950.Stream survey provides data for the evaluation of streams and their salmon resources.
Washington State Department of Natural Resources.Changing Our Water Ways: Trends in Washington’s Water Systems.Olympia, 2000.Document looks at trends affecting Washington State’s aquatic resources.
White, Richard.The Organic Machine.New York:Hill and Wang, 1995.White explores the history of the Columbia River and the people who have changed it. Chapter 4 “Salmon” was very helpful to me.It has an excellent Bibliographical essay on the subject of the Columbia River.
Worster, Donald.Rivers of Empire; Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West.New York:Oxford University Press, 1985.History of the West in terms of water.Covers California, and the Southwestern states, but also has useful information on Washington and the Columbia River.
Wynecoop, David C.Children of the Sun; A History of the Spokane Indians.Wellpinit: Published by the Author, 1969.Most widely published book on the history of the Spokane Tribe.Wynecoop used outside sources from an insiders point of view to convey the past struggles and victories of the Spokane Tribe.It has a very informative appendix and it is easily read with striking pictures and illustrations.