The Elwha River Dams – Who Won, Who Lost

Annotated Bibliography

Copyright 2001 By Karen Brittain for Environmental History: Water

Adamire, Buckley, and Harriet U. Fish.The Elwha a River of Destiny (Carlsborg, Wash.:Harriet Fish, 1991).This is an excellent book about events that occurred on the river from the time it was first settled.Contains excellent photos.

Aldwell, Thomas.Conquering the Last Frontier.(New York:American Book-Knickerbocker Press, 1950).This is Aldwell’s autobiography and has a great deal of information about the City of Port Angeles beginning in 1894 when he arrived.If you want to know about the industrialization of the Olympic Peninsula, this book has the information – complete with plenty of horn blowing.Aldwell is the man responsible for the building of the Elwha dams.He never mentions anything about the dams being illegally constructed without fish passageways.

Alexander, Alice.A Pioneer Family Homesteading the Upper Elwha.(Port Angeles, Wash.:PenPrint, 1993).This book is primarily about Alexander’s family, however, it has lots of excellent general information and photos.

Brown, Bruce.Mountain in the Clouds A Search for the Wild Salmon.(Seattle:University of Washington Press, 1990).Here’s a book that is not only packed with science and history, but it is also a good read.Brown personally makes a survey of many Olympic Peninsula rivers to search for salmon.The drawback is that he provides no references.Read this book after you’ve read all the others.

Cone, Joseph, and Sandy Ridlington, eds.The Northwest Salmon Crisis.(Corvallis, Ore.:Oregon State University Press, 1996).This book provides a look at both scientific and historical causes for the state of salmon in the Pacific Northwest.The book has everything from sport fishing, to logging, canneries and hatcheries information.Very useful and has some very interesting photos.

Crane, Jeff.“A Tale of Two Rivers:History and Change on the Elwha River.” (Master of Arts Thesis, Washington State University, 1998).Crane provides some interesting historical information on the river and the dams.He adamantly supports removal of the dams and believes that doing so will restore the river.

“Elwha River History.” [ HYPERLINK "http://elwha.org.hist.htm" http://elwha.org.hist.htm].April 2001.A chronology of events that have occurred on the river - includes a lot of information on the Elwha River S’Klallam tribe.

Gunther, Erna.Clallam Ethnography.(Seattle:University of Washington Press, 1927).Specific information on the Upper and Lower Elwha River S’Klallam tribes.Does not discuss the dams.

Lichatowich, Jim.Salmon Without Rivers.(Washington, D.C.:Island Press, 1999).The best of all the books I used for scientific and historical Northwest fisheries information.Not only great information, but Lichatowich is a superb writer and his information is wonderfully documented.

Malloy, Mary.Boston Men on the Northwest Coast:The American Maritime Fur Trade 1788-1844.(Fairbanks, Alaska:The Limestone Press, 1998).This is an excellent source for information about the Native peoples of the Pacific Northwest at the height of the fur trade.If you are looking for background information on Northwest Natives, this is the book.Well written and easy to read.Malloy lists great sources.

Martin, Paul J.Port Angeles Washington:A History.(Port Angeles, Wash.:Peninsula Publishing, 1983).This is pretty dry but useful for information on the area.The focus is on local people and industry.

Outwater, Alice.Water a Natural History.(BasicBooks, 1996).This books is absolutely the best for general information on water.It reads almost like a novel and is loaded with useful sources for anyone researching just about any aspect of water – including dams.

Russell, Russell, ed.Jimmy Come Lately History of Clallam County.(Port Orchard, Wash.:Publishers Printing, 1971).This is another rather dry book, lists of events throughout the county, but it is very useful if you need Clallam County historical information.

Scharf, Janet.“Elwha River.”[ HYPERLINK "http://nps.gov/olym/issues/isselwha2.htm" http://nps.gov/olym/issues/isselwha2.htm.]

April 2001.Another historical look at the Elwha River and the dams – more information on Elwha Natives.Some great photos are included.

Steelquist, Robert.Field Guide to the Pacific Salmon.(Seattle:Sasquatch Books, 1992).This book is pretty much about the salmon science.It is very readable, has lots of good sources.Very useful.

Taylor, Joseph E.Making Salmon.(Seattle:University of Washington Press, 1999).Like Lichatowich and Brown, Taylor examines many aspects of the science and history of the Pacific Northwest that have brought about the demise of salmon.Unlike other authors, Taylor considers the impact that Native populations had on salmon even before whites arrived in the area.This is a superb book and it is filled with excellent information.

Unconquering the Last Frontier, directed and produced by Robert Lundahl, narrated by Gary Farmer, Evolution Film, 2000, videocassette.This video is rather too long and not terribly interesting.Aside from a couple of interviews with Elwha River S’Klallam Natives, it is hardly worth viewing.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Olympic National Park, Washington.Final Environmental Impact Statement Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration

(Denver, Col., 1995).The EIS provides and overview of the history of the dams on the river, proposes ways to restore the river to its former glory, responds to concerns about the project and the effect that restoration would have on the present habitat.For information on how the public feels about the dam removal project, this is the place to get it – contains 235 pages of comment letters.

Venus, Sandra Marie.“Concrete and Salmon:the Dismantling of Two Hydroelectric Dams.” (Master of Arts Thesis, University of Washington, 1997.)Venus’ thesis dealt primarily with the construction of the dams and what it would take to remove them.There are some interesting tid-bits about the structures and good photos.

Wolf, Edward C., and Seth Zuckerman, eds.Salmon Nation People and Fish at the Edge.(Beaverton, Ore:Paramount Graphics, Inc., 1999).This book looks at the Northwest salmon crisis from the viewpoints of a number of people ranging from sport fishers to scientists.There is some excellent information within the book and is well worth the time to read.