Effects of Otter Hunting and Fur Trade

Annotated Bibliography

Copyright 2001 Richard "Milo" Pew

Primary Sources

Harris, Christie. Raven’s Cry (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1992).  This is an excellent book. This book helps the reader to see the fur trade through the eyes of the Native Americans.

Jones, Robert F. Annals of Astoria: The Headquarters Log of the Pacific Fur Company on the Colombia River,      1811-1813 (New York, Fordham University Press, 1999).  This book gives great insight into the day to day activities of the Pacific Fur Company on the Colombia River.

Lamb, W. Kaye. Journal of a Voyage on the North West Coast of North America during the years 1811, 1812, 1813      and 1814 (Toronto, The Champlain Society, 1969).  This source related the history of some confrontations between the Europeans and the Northwest Native Americans. This book proved to be useful.

—, The Journals and Letters of Sir Alexander Mackenzie (Cambridge, University Press,1970).  Sir Mackenzie’s journal is interesting, but his letters are even better.

McDonald, T. H. Exploring the Northwest Territory: Sir Alexander Mackenzie’s Journal of a Voyage by Bark Canoe from Lake Athabaska to the Pacific Ocean in the Summer of 1789 (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1966).  Mackenzie wrote of great adventures, but it was not great source for the sea otter trade.

Thomson, David. Colombia Journals (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1994).  The Journals "offer a glimpse of Native culture at the moment of contact with Europeans."

Washington Department of Fisheries, "The Environmental Effects of Floating Mariculture in Puget Sound," by Donald P.       Weston (August 1986).  This book is more about water quality than it was about the fur trade, but there is some useful information.

 Washington Department of Wildlife, "Sea Otters in Washington: Distribution, Abundance, and Activity Patterns," by C.         Edward Bowlby, Barry L. Troutman, and Steven J. Jeffries (September 1988).  To obtain the distribution of the sea otter population as of 1988, this report is a great source. Of course, the report is almost 13 years old.

 —, "Washington State Recovery Plan for the Sea Otter," by Scott Richardson, and Harriet Allen (June 2000).  This report provides excellent up-to-date statistics.

Secondary Sources

Ashley, William H. British Establishments on the Colombia & The State of the Fur Trade (Fairfield, Ye Galleon Press,       1981).  There were only 440 copies printed. It is a great asset for any researcher studying the fur trade.

Buell, Robert Kingery. Sea Otters and the China Trade (David McKay Company, Inc., 1968).  To better understand the sea-otter trade, this book is very useful.

Busch, Briton C., and Gough, Barry M. Fur Traders from New England: The Boston Men in the North Pacific,      1787-1800 (Spokane, The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1996).  This book discusses what impact the Americans had on the fur trade.

Dodd, Gordon B. The American Northwest: A History of Oregon and Washington (Arlington heights, The Forum Press, Inc., 1986).  This book is mostly about Oregon and Washington States’ history, but it had a few useful passages.

Fogdall, Alberta Brooks. Royal Family of the Columbia: Dr. John McLoughlin and his Family (Fairfield, YeGalleon Press, 1978).  This book chronicles the life and times of the McLouglins.

Howay, Frederick. The Atahualpa: Which Vessel was Attacked by the Natives on the Northwest Coast of America in
June 1805 (Fairfield, Ye Galleon Press, 1978).  This book demonstrates that the Native Americans did try to fight back.

Kirk, Ruth. Tradition & Change on the Northwest Coast: The Makah, Nuu-chah-nulth, Southern Kwakiutl and Nuzalk  (Seattle, University of Washington Pres, 1986).  This was an excellent source for Native American traditions, and how the Europeans changed those traditions.

Makarova, Raisa V. Russians on the Pacific: 1743-1799 (Kingston, The Limestone Press, 1975).  This book chronicles Russia’s involvement in the fur trade.

McCracken, Harold. Hunters of the Stormy Sea (Garden City, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1957).  This story chronicles the adventures of all those involved in the sea otter trade.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary OnLine, Accessed May, 2001.  http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary  It is as good as any other on-line dictionary.

Ostrowitz, Judith. Privileging the Past: Reconstructing History in Northwest Coast Art (Seattle, University of Washington  Press, 1999).  This book is useful for art history research, but it is not very useful for fur trade.

Pethick, Derek. First Approaches to the Northwest Coast (Vancouver, J. J. Douglas LTD., 1976).  This book chronicles the first meetings between the Europeans and the Native Americans.

Pierce, Richard A., and Donnelly, Alton S. A History of the Russian American Company, Vol. 2 (Kingston, The Limestone  Press, 1979).  This source sheds some light on the Russian’s involvement in the fur trade.

Ray, Arthur J. Indians in the Fur Trade: their role as trappers, hunters, and middlemen in the lands southwest of Hudson Bay 1660-1870 (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1974).  This is about the Native Americans’ involvement in the fur trade; it does not cover Northwest Native Americans’ involvement in the fur trade.

Scheffer, Victor B. The Amazing Sea Otter (New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1981).  This book introduces the readers to the wonderful world of the sea otter.

Vaughan, Thomas, and Holm Bill. Soft Gold: The Fur Trade & Cultural Exchange on the Northwest coast of America    (Portland, Oregon Historical Society Press, 1990).  This book contains a wide variety of pictures of various Northwest Native American artifacts. There are also page-long explanations of the artifacts and their historical content.