Puget Prairie Mima Mounds in Reference to Native American Burning

Annotated Bibliography

Copyright 2001 Stormie K. Pickard

Agee, James K. Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993.

This is an intensive study of the ecology of specific timber and vegetation ecosystems, which exist in the Pacific Northwest. Agee does not address prairie areas but does cover Douglas-fir growths with quite a lot of detail.

Boyd, Robert, ed. Indians, Fire and The Land in the Pacific Northwest. Corvalis: Oregon State University Press, 1999.

Contrary to the beliefs of George Vancouverís British-Sponsored exploring expedition of 1792, Boyd presents that the large and small prairies scattered throughout the region west of the Cascades as well as the forests east of the Cascades with little underbrush and clutter, were manipulated and managed, if not actually created, by the native inhabitants. This book makes the clear and supported connection between native American burning and the pacific northwest landscape. Boydís introduction alone uses a concise breakdown of each ecoregion in the Pacific Northwest to present in laymanís terms the burning activities of Native Americans in our area.

Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report PNW-8, The Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington, by Jerry Franklin and C.T. Dyrness (1973).

The purpose of this technical report includes outlining major phytogeographic units and suggesting how they fit together and relate to environmental factors, directing the interested reader to sources of detailed information on the environment and vegetation of the Pacific Northwest and it illustrates the major plant communities with photographs.

Corliss, William R. "A Clash of Hypothesis." In Science Frontiers Online. Online posting. May-Jun 1990; accessed 12 April 2001. Available from http://www.science-frontiers.com/sf069/sf069g10.htm

This online article discusses the debate over the numerous theories of origin for the Mima-like mounds in western North America.

Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, Fire in the Northern Environment Ė A Symposium, edited by C.W. Slaughter, Richard J. Barney, and G.M. Hansen (1971).

This symposium was held in order to explore some aspects of wildfire in the subarctic. The goal was to delineate and clarify many of the current questions and opinions on wildfire in the subarctic-its relationship to the environment and to manís use of the environment as well as to consider some aspects of fire control in this region.

Intertribal Timber Council. Twenty-Second Annual National Indian Timber Symposium. Evolving Partnerships in Trust Management. Portland, OR., 1998.

This symposium focuses on the development of Trust Resource Management plans between the National Forest Service, nationwide tribal counsels, the Canadian Forest Service and the Game Department.

Lawrence John Giles, "The Ecology of the Mounds on Mima Prairie with Special

Reference to Douglas-Fir Invasion" (Masters Thesis, University of Washington, 1970).

Gilesís Thesis states that the encroachment of Douglas-Fir on the Northern portion of Mima Prairie is gradually reducing the area of the prairie and the decrease in occurrence of fire is probably the single most important factor allowing the invasion. His thesis not only covers the flora of the prairie areas in great detail but it illustrates the importance of burning to the establishment and management of the Mima Prairie ecosystem.

Lewis, Henry T. A Time For Burning. Alberta: University of Alberta, 1982 According to Henry T. Lewis, Anthropological textbooks have consistently maintained that the change from foraging to agriculture represented a shift from a relatively passive to an active dynamic relationship with nature. Lewis theorizes that indigenous cultures created and maintained an active, progressive and productive relationship with the landscape. This study proves to be a very intensive overview of the uses of fire for indigenous populations.

MacCleery, Doug. "Understanding the Role the Human Dimension Has Played in Shaping Americaís Forest and Grassland Landscapes." Eco-Watch . Journal online; accessed 12 April 2001. Available from http://www.fs.fed.us/eco/eco-watch/ew940210.htm.

There is a growing susceptibility of our forests to insects, disease and catastrophic fire as a result of a century of reduced ecosystem fire. MacCleery introduces that much of the focus of public attention has been on the old-growth/spotted owl situation while there is a boiling just below the surface which will effect a much larger area of federal forestland. His conclusion states that if we continue to ignore how both human intervention and natural events have shaped the forests of today, we are liable to make some big mistakes. I found this article to be a fascinating study on the health of our forests today which is supported by an extensive bibliography for future research.

McFaul, M. "Preliminary Results of a Field Study of the Mima Mounds at Their Type Locality in Washington State." Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Geographical Journal 6, no. 2 (1997): 405.

Pyne, Stephen, J. Americaís Fires: Management on Wildlands and Forests. Durham: Forest History Society, 1997.

This book is a compact overview of the history of fire, the attempt at removal of wildfire and the restoration of presettlement fire regimes. Pyne uses Arizona fire as a "poster child" to explain the pattern of fire in America and to suggest a future. This is a very interesting and easy reading short biography of fire in the United States.

---. Fire in America. Washington: University Of Washington Press, 1997.

This book is designed for fire managers, historians and an interested public and it serves as a reference volume, which consolidates the many dimensions of the subject of fire into various identifiable themes. Although this book was not very useful for my research, it serves as a great first source for the history of fire in The United States.

---. Introduction to Wildland Fire: Fire Management in the United States. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publications, 1984.

There are two apparent purposes of this book which are an illustration of how fire is conceptualized and how, in the United States, it is managed. This volume is meant as a reference for fire managers and an introductory text for students of wildland fire. This book serves as his own comparison and continuation of an earlier book "Fire In America" and proves valuable as an in depth study of the regimes of wildfire.

Robbins, Jim. "In Firesí Afterglow, Nature Runs Its Course," Science, The New York Times, 10 April 2001.

Ruby, Robert H, and John A. Brown. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

Stewart, Omer C. "Fire as the First Great Force Employed by Man." In Manís Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, edited by William L. Thomas, Jr. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1956.

Omer concludes that the botanical evidence in his study leaves little doubt that fire has played a decisive role on the landscape during many thousands of years. Omer uses soil and tissue growth samples in a worldwide focus to support his thesis. This essay proves worthy in a search for an understanding of the history of the use of fire, worldwide.

Tim Miller, "Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Laramies Basin Mima-Like Mounds, Wyoming" (Masters Thesis, University of Wyoming, 1993).

This paper breaks the 30 different hypothesis concerning the origin of the Mima-Like Mounds down into five distinct categories listing the author and the date of hypothesis presentation. This table was very useful in summarizing and dating the specific hypothesis presented on the formation of Mima-like mounds.

Trigger, Bruce C., and Wilcomb E. Washburn, eds. North America. Vol. 1 of The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Washburn, A.L. Mima Mounds: An Evaluation of Proposed Origins with Special Reference to the Puget Lowlands. Washington: Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Report of Investigations 29, 1988.

The purpose of Washburn's report is to stimulate much needed rigorous research and lead to resolution of a many facetted problem that has long puzzled observers of Mima mounds and similar features. In doing so, Washburn lays out twelve critical characteristics of mounds and compares several of the existing hypothesis against this table in order to prove his thesis that all Mima-like mounds are not necessarily of the same origin. I used this resource extensively to understand and make specific reference to the Puget Mima Mound Prairie.

Getting to know the Puget Prairie Mima Mound reserve:

Davenport, Roberta. "Restoration of Mima Mounds Festuca idahoensis Prairie." In SER-Poster Sessions . Online posting date unknown; accessed 16 May 2001. Available from http://www.ser.org/library/seattle/seapost6.html.

This posting references a restoration program which has been initiated at the Mima Mounds Natural Area Preserve which includes prescribed burning and replanting of native grass plugs.

Maggi, Rachel. "Prairie Restoration Underway in the Puget Sound." In Partners In Flight. Online posting. Spring 2000; accessed 7 May 2001. Available from http://www.gorge.net/natres/pif.html

This article introduces the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP), which is administered by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and is actively funding many projects in Western Washington including restoration projects on native South Puget Sound Prairies.

Olson, Jennifer. "Weed-eating beetles introduced." In Thurston County Noxious Weed Control Articles tcweeds@co.thurston.wa.us. Online posting date unknown; accessed 13 April 2001. Available from http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/tcweeds/news_articles.htm

Olson reports that a group of weed-eating beetles have been released upon county property near Rainier and near Mima Mounds.

Mapes, Linda V. "Sprinkled in Western Washington are prairies threatened by development and the pernicious Scotch Broom," Health & Science, The Seattle Times, 12 October 1999.

Mapes gives a brief history of the mounds based upon popular hypothesis of origin and addresses the endangered or threatened species of butterflies that are dependent upon the prairies. Without any listed or verbally given references it is difficult to say how dependable her rendition is but I found it to be interesting reading and a proof that the debate does in fact exist.