And Agriculture to Its Interests?
Copyright 2001 Carla Loekje Sevenster
The assignment was to do a research project on a human activity over a defined time period which has had an impact on the Puget Sound watershed, and describe how that activity has changed over time.
Beaver trapping and agriculture both have had a significant impact in
the Puget Sound watershed area, not only in human historical terms, but
also directly on the water supply. The elimination of the beaver has resulted
in a loss of wetlands, while agriculture was made possible by the destruction
of native vegetation. The Hudson's Bay Company did both. It started its
activities in the area with the fur trade, and gradually added to its interests
agriculture and land development. The question addressed by this research
is "when and why did the Hudson's Bay Company expand its operations in
the Puget Sound region of the United States to include farming and why
did it eventually stop both?"
Barr, William. "Lieutenant Aemilius Simpsonís Survey: York Factory to Fort Vancouver, 1826." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Bentley, Jerry H. and Herbert F. Ziegler. Traditions & Encounters. A Global Perspective on the Past. Volume C: From 1750 to the Present. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000. A college textbook that provides a global perspective of historical events that influenced the history of the Pacific Northwest.
Burton, A.J. "Irish in Washington Ė The Early Years (1840s to 1890)." Written in 1998. [http://www.historylink.org/output.CFM?file_ID=2327&keyword-fur]. May 2001.
Calverley, Dorthea. "2-001: The Beaver, the Foundation of the Fur Trade." [http://www.calverley.dawson-creek.bc.ca/Part%2002%20_%20Fur%20Trade/2-001.html]. May 2001. An article that contains information about beaver hats. Unsubstantiated but interesting.
Cole, Jean Murray. "The Fur Trader and The Indians: Relationships between the Hudsonís Bay Company and The Native People as Revealed in Archibald McDonaldís Letters and Journals." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Crooks, Drew W. "The Farming Outstations of Fort Nisqually." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Crowley, Walt. "Hudsonís Bay Company establishes Fort Nisqually, first white settlement on Puget Sound, in April 1833." An October 14, 1999, article on Historylink.org. [http://www.historylink.org/output.CFM?file_ID=1741&keyword=Agriculture] May 2001.
Devine, Heather. "The Killing of Joseph Cardinal: The Northwest Rebellion, Ethnic Identities, and Treaty Six Bands in Northern Alberta." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Dobson, Richard. "The Oregon Boundary Settlement and its Impact on The Hudsonís Bay Operations in the Columbia District." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Fender, Ann Harper. "Alcohol in the Trade. Isle a la Crosse, 1805-1823." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Foster, John Elgin. "Fur Trade," Discovery Channel School, provided by World Book Online. [http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozhistory/f/213680.html]. May 2001.
Keith, Lloyd. "Shameful Mismanagement, Wasteful Extravagance and the Most Unfortunate Dissention: George Simpsonís Misconceptions of the North West Company." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Kruckeberg, Arthur R. The Natural History of Puget Sound Country.
Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998. A comprehensive history
of the region, with social, cultural, ethnic and natural history.
Lange, Greg. "Charles Terry (1829-1867) opens first store in furture [sic] King County no later than November 28, 1851." Internet posting, November 14, 2000, on Historylink.org. [http://www.historylink.org/output.CFM?file_ID=2839&keyword=fur]. May 2001. The article contains extensive lists of purchase and inventory of an early settlerís store. The fact that such a store was opened and the types of goods sold are an indication of the urbanization of the area in that time period.
Lange, Greg. "Smallpox Epidemic Ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s." Internet posting, November 20, 2000, on Historylink.org. [http://www.historylink.org/output.cfm?file_id=2856]. May 2001.
Mackie, Richard Somerset. "Trading Beyond the Mountains. The British Fur Trade on the Pacific, 1793-1843." Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998.
Morgan, Murray. Pugetís Sound. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979. A comprehensive history of the southern Puget Sound area in the 19th century.
Murray, Laura J. "Fur Traders in Conversation." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
Outwater, Alice. Water: A Natural History. New York: BasicBooks, 1996. Alice Outwater, an environmental engineer, provides an excellent overview of the cycle of water and the various impacts on its quality and availability, and the impact humans have on them.
Rochester, Junius. "Donation Land Law, also known as the Oregon Land Law." A September 30, 1998, article posted on the Internet at Historylink.org. [http://www.historylink.org/output.CFM?file_ID=400&keyword=Agriculture]. May 2001.
Tolmie, William Fraser. Physician and Fur Trader. Vancouver: Mitchell Press Limited, 1963. Dr. Tolmie lived in the Pacific Northwest from 1833 until his death in 1886. He was an ethnologist and botanist and an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company. The introduction to the journal is optimistic and tends to paint a nostalig and overly romantic picture of the man itself and his tough life, an attitude sometimes directly contrary to Tolmie's own entries and those of Joseph Heath in his diary of those times. A fabulous diary for the historian, but unfortunatly, the diary spans just a few years from 1931 and does not have much information about HBC's trading practices.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History." [http:// www.cen.uiuc.edu/~sulfridg/turner_frontier.html]. May 2001.
White, Richard. Land Use, Environment, and Social Change: The Shaping of Island County, Washington. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. Dr. White's book provides information on the social, political, cultural, ecological, and ethnical aspects of settlers in the Pacific Northwest. The book is excellent and his microscopic examination of a minuscule area of land in the Pacific Northwest apply, to a large extent, to settlers anywhere in the country's history.
Wright, Mary C. "The Bonds of Blood: Race, Politics and the Hudsonís Bay Company during Oregonís 1847 Cayuse War." Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000.
. Selected Papers of Rupertís Land Colloquium 2000. Compiled by David G. Malaher, foreword by Jennifer S.H. Brown. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies, 2000. On May 24-28, 2000, The Centre for Rupertís Land Studies at the University of Winnipeg held its 2000 biennial meeting in collaboration with Washington State University at Vancouver, Washington. Rupertís Land is a vast area in Northeastern Canada where the Hudsonís Bay Company conducted business. Most of the 2000 conference papers focused on the related history of the Pacific Northwest. Those articles that provided material for this paper are listed separately by author in this bibliography.
http://www.ccrh.org/comm/umatilla/primary/claim.htm . This website has the entire language of The Donation Land Claim Act, 1850, the "Act to create the Office of Surveyor-General of the Public Lands in Oregon, and to provide for the Survey, and to make Donations to Settlers of the said Public Lands." May 2001.
http://collections.ic.gc.ca/hbc/catex6.htm. This site describes some artifacts of the fur trade as sold by HBC company, and includes information on the beaver felt hat. May 2001.
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~reak/hist/fur.htm. A very interesting website about the history of the fur trade, even though it is anonymous and undated. May 2001.
http://ericir.syr.edu/Virtual/Lessons/crossroads/sec4/Unit_2/Unit_IIQ3R1.html. A webpage of A Crossroads Resource, part of an online study guide. This particular page contains the question: "Assess the effects of contact on the Indians and Europeans between 1492 and 1673. May 2001.
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/7545/Hawaii.html. This website is about the history of Hawaii and its Royal Family. Unsubstantiated information, an the author is unknown, other than the notation that all the articles are copyright by Cinderella.
http://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/archives/hbca. Contains a brief history of the Hudsonís Bay Company. May 2001.
http://www.historylink.org. This website is dedicated to the history of Seattle and its surroundings. Individual authorsí articles are included above. May 2001.
http://www.historyoftheworld.com/canada/docs/hbc-ch-1.htm . Contains the text of the original Royal Charter for incorporating The Hudsonís Bay Company, A.D. 1670. Hard to read because it has been typed onto the website without edition in its original English. May 2001.
http://members.aol.com/_h_a/Gibson0817/hbc.htm?mtbrand=AOL_US . This web page has an interesting history of the Hudsonís Bay Company and, in particular, information on beaver fur and the ethnic make-up of HBCís labor force in the mid 19th century. The author is unknown and the information is unsubstantiated; however, so many of the facts are supported by other readings that it is included here. May 2001.
http:///www.nps.gov/jeff/mus-1830.htm. Website of Museum of Westward Expansion Tour, for the years 1830-1840. May 2001.
http://parkscanada.pch.gc.ca/parks/alberta/rocky_mountain-house/english/beaver_e.htm. A website from the Rocky Mountain House National Historic Site of Canada. It contains information on the beaver hat and its history. The copyright is to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada/Parks Canada 1999. May 2001.
http://www.villagehatshop.com/hats_glossary_s.html. Contains a blurp about the 18th and 19th century silk hat. May 2001.
http://www.whiteoak.org/learning/furhat.htm. A very comprehensive site from the White Oak Society, Inc., that has everything you ever wanted to know about beaver hats, including how to make them. May 2001.