SECOND PAPER TOPICS: Due at lecture, Tuesday March 1 at lecture

Answer one of the following questions in an essay of 2-3 pages, typed and double spaced.

Make sure that you 1) establish the historical context in which each document was written
and 2) support your argument with brief references or quotations from texts and/or lectures.

You need to make a persuasive case based on the assigned documents, and avoid broad or
unsubstantiated generalizations. Late papers will receive a lower grade (-.1 per day).

For assistance with your papers, consult with your TA but also make use of these other resources:

1) The Odegaard Writing and Research Center (OWRC) is the major writing center on campus
and is located in OUGL, the undergraduate library. Appointments are usually needed, but they
have convenient and late hours. See their helpful web page <>

2) The History Department Writing Center, located in Smith Hall 020 (basement) for appointment

Professors O'Neil or Sbragia are also available to talk about papers; see course home page
for office hours, or contact us by e-mail <oneilmr@u...> and <sbragia@u....>.

Question #1. Religion and Politics in Augustine and Machiavelli

How do St. Augustine and Machiavelli differ in their views of the relationship between religion and politics?

You might start with Augustine's definition of the City of the World versus the City of God, examining how
this reflects the new Christian view of history in the late Roman Empire.

By contrast, what is the function of religion in Machiavelli's political thought in the early 16th C? Does
religion support politics or work against it? What kind of religion does Machiavelli prefer and what is his
view of the current religion of Italy?

Be sure to develop a sense of the historical context of each author's work, as well as a close reading
of the texts involved.

Here are links to two other documents by Machiavelli:

Machiavelli as humanist 1) Letter to Vettori Machiavelli as humanist, writing in exile from Florence
2) a few selections from The Prince
-- Chap. 11 on Ecclesiastical Principalities (i.e. the Papal State)
                                                        Chap. 26 Exhortation to Free Italy from the Barbarians

Question #2: Antiquity in the Renaissance: Artists and Humanists

Renaissance writers and artists focused on the rediscovery of knowledge possessed by antiquity;
they also celebrated the centrality of the individual and his abilities, especially in the figure of the artist.
Classical Rome in particular (but also Greece) was drawn on as a model of political, cultural and aesthetic

Discuss the themes of 1) recovery of classical antiquity,    and/or
                              2) role of the individual artist or humanist in the life and work of two of the following:
                                  Machiavelli, or Renaissance artists such as Raphael and Michelangelo

What did these authors & artists take from the classical past & how did they use and reshape that legacy?
What evidence do you see of a new, Renaissance theme of the role of individuals in art and history?

For Raphael and Michelangelo, use the accounts by Vasari; also draw on the readings in Art History reader.