Retreat, or relocation, is an adaptation strategy that manages expectations of future sea-level rise. This option typically involves long-term planning with expectations of future sea-level rise to avoid the costs of investing in protective shoreline solutions. Important facilitators of this option include regulatory and legal mechanisms by which to incentivize citizens, businesses, and government alike to consider a managed retreat. These may include buyout programs, conservation easements, acquisition programs, or flood hazard regulations.
Seawalls are typically used to protect beaches from tidal waves and control beach erosion. They can be made from a variety of materials including wood pilings, stacking rocks to form seawall, or walls built of concrete. Seawalls are considered a hard engineering solution due to their typically permanent long term structure.
Revetments are fortifying structures
designed to absorb energy of incoming water.They are
typically constructed as sloped areas of loose piled
rocks, wooden structures, or piles of concrete shapes.
Surge barriers are designed to prevent storm surges, seasonal
tides and flooding from affecting a protected area behind the
barrier. They are often designed in conjunction with with larger
flood protection systems including dams, sluices, and shipping
locks. Surge barriers allow water to flow freely between two
areas with the added capability of being able to close and shut
off the flow of water in the event of a storm surge, higher
tides, or flooding having a negative impact on the area inland
from the barrier.
The Oosterscheldekering is a storm surge barrier in the Netherlands that was initially built as a dam. Public opinion drove the addition of large sluices placed throughout the barrier that can be controlled to lift or shut depending on the severity of incoming sea-level rise threats.It is the world’s largest movable flood barrier.
The Thames Barrier in the UK, the world's second largest
movable flood barrier, was primarily designed to prevent
flooding and storm surges from impacting the vulnerable
floodplains of the boroughs of Greater London. This barrier
has rotating cylindrical gates that can be raised or lowered
in the event of sea-level rise threats from the North Sea.
This barrier incorporates some flood gates that are permanent
in nature and some that can be navigated by ships when open.
The Maeslantkering is another storm surge barrier in the Netherlands with a unique design that allows it to swing closed if storm surges are imminent or swing open to allow water and ships to pass.
(Picture by www.aerolin.nl)
Contact: peter (at) stat.washington.edu